Protocol of Amendment to the Charter of the Organization of American States, "Protocol of Cartagena de Indias"- Ratification Information

Antigua and Barbuda .   02/14/86       11/07/86       11/24/86 RA     /  /     
Argentina ...........   12/05/85       10/31/88       11/07/88 RA     /  /     
Bahamas (Commonwealth   12/05/85       11/07/86       11/07/86 RA     /  /     
Barbados ............   12/05/85       11/06/86       12/02/86 RA     /  /     
Bolivia .............   12/05/85       11/12/88       11/16/88 RA     /  /     
Brazil ..............   12/05/85       09/20/88       10/03/88 RA     /  /     
Chile ...............   12/05/85       06/16/89 D  a  09/29/89 RA     /  /     
Colombia ............   12/05/85       03/06/87       03/12/87 RA     /  /     
Costa Rica ..........   12/05/85       09/18/90       11/16/90 RA     /  /     
Dominica (Commonwealth  12/05/85       11/07/86       11/18/86 RA     /  /     
Dominican Republic ..   12/05/85       11/06/86       12/03/86 RA     /  /     
Ecuador .............   12/05/85 D  1  04/27/90       05/22/90 RA     /  /     
El Salvador .........   12/05/85       11/15/88       11/16/88 RA     /  /     
Grenada .............   06/10/86       10/24/86       11/12/86 RA     /  /     
Guatemala ...........   12/05/85         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Haiti ...............   12/05/85         /  /           /  /          /  /     
Honduras ............   12/05/85       03/16/87       04/15/87 RA     /  /     
Jamaica .............   12/05/85       10/31/86       11/07/86 RA     /  /     
Mexico ..............   12/05/85       08/31/88 D  b  10/11/88 RA     /  /     
Nicaragua ...........   12/05/85       11/11/88       11/16/88 RA     /  /     
Panama ..............   06/13/86       07/13/89 D  c  08/24/89 RA     /  /     
Paraguay ............   12/05/85       03/06/87       03/27/87 RA     /  /     
Peru ................   12/05/85 D  3  09/18/96 DR4   09/20/96 RA     /  /     
Saint Lucia .........   12/05/85       01/22/87       02/06/87 RA     /  /     
Saint Vincent and the   09/28/87       06/15/87       09/28/87 RA     /  /     
St. Kitts and Nevis .   04/16/86       11/06/86       12/04/86 RA     /  /     
Suriname ............   12/05/85       11/11/87       11/12/87 RA     /  /     
Trinidad and Tobago .   04/15/86       10/28/86       11/07/86 RA     /  /     
United States .......   11/07/86 D  2    /  /           /  /          /  /     
Uruguay .............   12/05/85       10/01/90       10/02/90 RA     /  /     
Venezuela ...........   12/05/85       05/20/93       08/10/93 RA     /  /     
REF = REFERENCE                                      INST = TYPE OF INSTRUMENT
       D = DECLARATION                                      RA = RATIFICATION
       R = RESERVATION                                      AC = ACCEPTANCE
             A-50 PROTOCOL OF AMENDMENT TO THE CHARTER                        
              OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES                          
                 "PROTOCOL OF CARTAGENA DE INDIAS"                            
1. Ecuador:                                                                   
   (Statement made at the time of signature)                                  
   With regard to the Permanent Council's functions vis-á-vis the             
peaceful settlement of disputes, the Delegation of Ecuador believes           
that unilateral recourse by any of the parties to a dispute to                
obtain the Council`s good offices is governed by the obligation that          
the Permanent Council has, in the application of the Charter`s                
principles and lofty purposes for peace, "to assist the parties and           
to recommend the procedures it considers suitable for the peaceful            
settlement of the dispute."  All of this is now a broad mandate to            
the Permanent Council to watch over the maintenance of friendly               
relations among the Member States and to assist them effectively in           
the peaceful settlement of their disputes.  Even if the procedure is          
not accepted by one of the parties, the Council may take steps to             
achieve an agreement.                                                         
2. United States:                                                             
   (Statement made at the time of signature)                                  
   The United States, upon signing the Protocol of Amendment to the           
Charter of the Organization of American States, states that it does           
so subject to the following understandings and that the provisions            
of the Protocol shall be effective with respect to the United States          
only insofar as they are interpreted and applied in a manner                  
consistent with such understandings:                                          
   Article 1 of the Charter, as amended by the Protocol, does not             
limit the existing powers and functions of the Organization of                
American States (OAS) as practiced over the last forty years and any          
action taken by the OAS under the Charter or the Inter-American               
Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty), such as actions in              
furtherance of democracy or security, will not be considered to be            
inconsistent with this article.                                               
   Article 3, paragraph (e) of the Charter, as amended by the                 
Protocol, must be interpreted as being consistent with, and not               
derogating from, the democratic principles embodied in paragraph (d)          
of this same article.  Accordingly, it neither bars the promotion             
under the Charter and Rio Treaty of democracy and security by the             
Organization and its Member States, nor requires the OAS or its               
Member States to accept regimes that are undemocratic or otherwise            
hostile to inter-                                                             
American values, nor is it intended in any way to change the                  
fundamental character of the OAS as an organization of democratic             
   Article 23 of the Charter, as amended by the Protocol, does not            
affect the obligation of Member States to continue to submit                  
disputes with other American states to the peaceful procedures set            
forth in the Charter of the Organization of American States before            
referring such disputes to the United Nations Security Council,               
consistent with Article 52(2) of the United Nations Charter and with          
the purpose of the Protocol to strengthen the Organization.                   
   Articles 29, 30 and 31 of the Charter, as amended by the                   
Protocol, do not create enforceable legal obligations and do not              
affect the sovereign rights and discretion of donor and recipient             
states with respect to the provision and receipt of assistance,               
including the terms, conditions and mechanisms under and through              
which such assistance may be provided.  The pledge to ensure                  
international social justice extends the requirements that Member             
States mobilize their own national human and material resources               
through suitable programs and recognize the importance of operating           
within an efficient domestic structure as fundamental conditions for          
their economic and social progress and for assuring effective inter-          
American cooperation.  In this regard, the United States will                 
continue to help Member States fulfill their goals of social justice          
through assistance it considers appropriate to support democracy,             
human rights, and the poor of the region.                                     
   Article 35 of the Charter, as amended by the Protocol, does not            
derogate in any way from the obligation of states reflected in                
Article 3 faithfully to fulfill their international obligations with          
respect to transnational enterprises whether derived from treaties            
and agreements or other sources of international law, nor does it             
derogate from the jurisdiction other states may have with regard to           
such enterprises.                                                             
   Article 38 of the Charter, as amended by the Protocol,                     
establishes non binding goals, including the important goal of                
reducing or eliminating tariff and nontariff barriers to exports of           
all Member States, and does not affect the competence or scope of             
the General Agreement and Tariffs and Trade (GATT), as the principal          
rule making body for the international trading system, to address             
negotiable issues such as special and differential treatment for              
developing country exports.                                                   
3. Peru:                                                                      
   (Statement made at the time of signature)                                  
   Upon signing this Protocol of Amendment, the Delegation of Peru            
states that it is only an initial, albeit significant, step in the            
process of restructuring the inter-American system, as provided for           
in resolution AG/RES. 745 (XIV-0/84).  In order to be complete, this          
restructuring calls for, among other amendments, the inclusion of             
collective economic security in the Charter of the Organization.              
This goes hand in hand with the preservation of peace and security            
in the hemisphere and also with overall development, which has been           
included in this amendment.  The Delegation of Peru states by way of          
a reservation that the powers conferred upon the Secretary General            
in Article 116 may not be exercised for matters that have already             
been resolved through settlement by the parties or through the                
decision of an arbitrator or a judgment handed down by an                     
international court, or that are governed by agreements or treaties           
in force.  Also, in accordance with international law, good offices           
are a means of peaceful settlement whose scope has been specified in          
international treaties, including the Pact of Bogotá. This procedure          
assumes the consent of the parties, and it is in this sense that the          
Delegation of Peru understands the powers conferred upon the                  
Permanent Council in the new Article 84 of this Protocol.                     
a.   Chile:                                                                   
     (Statements made at the time of ratification)                            
   a)  The Government of Chile states that it understands the new             
Article 35 to vest final authority in the legislation of the                  
individual Member States. Consequently, this provision does not               
limit or invalidate the sovereign right of each State to establish            
the laws for the governance of foreign investment and transnational           
enterprises which it regards as best suited to the needs of its               
national development.                                                         
   b)  The Government of Chile states that the procedure for the              
settlement of disputes established in Article 84 and the functions            
vested in the Secretary General by Article 116 must necessarily be            
interpreted in keeping with the other provisions of the Charter.  In          
particular, the Government of Chile notes the special relevance of            
Article 1, which enshrines the principle of strict legality in the            
Organization's actions, of Articles 3.b and 17 on respect for and             
observance of treaties,  judicial judgments, arbitral awards, and             
other sources of international law, of Article 18 on nonintervention          
in the internal or external affairs of States, and of Article 89,             
which requires the Permanent Council to observe the provisions of             
the Charter, international law, and treaties in force.                        
b. Mexico:                                                                    
   (Statement made at the time of ratification)                               
   The Government of Mexico states that it hereby ratifies the                
Protocol of Amendment to the Charter of the Organization of American          
States, Protocol of Cartagena de Indias, especially pleased by the            
inclusion within the Charter of guiding principles that renew our             
faith in the Organization, and reaffirms that:                                
1. The second paragraph of Article 1 of the Protocol specifically             
establishes that the Organization of American States has no implicit          
or residual powers, rejects the legal possibility of extensive                
interpretations of its governing precepts, and subordinates the               
Organization itself to the principle set forth in Article 18 of the           
Charter whereby no State or group of States has the right to                  
intervene, directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the            
internal or external affairs of any other state.                              
2. Article 3 e) introduces political pluralism into the Charter as            
the guiding principle of inter-American coexistence and stresses the          
inalienable right of every state to choose, without external                  
interference, the political, economic, and social organization best           
suited to it, establishes the obligation of the American States to            
cooperate fully among themselves, independently of their political,           
economic, and social systems, and aspires to a plural and democratic          
Organization composed of all the American States.                             
3. Article 23 of the Charter, amended by the Protocol of Cartagena,           
definitively eliminates the supposed conflict of competition between          
regional and universal forums by stating that the obligation to               
submit international disputes among the Member States to the                  
peaceful procedures indicated in the Charter does not impair the              
rights and obligations of the Member States, pursuant to Article 35           
of the Charter of the United Nations, thus reaffirming the sovereign          
faculty of the States to have recourse to the forum best suited to            
their interests as soon as they deem it necessary.                            
4. Articles 29 and 30, which regulate the principle enunciated in             
Article 3 j), commit the Member States to a united effort to ensure           
international social justice in their relations and to attain                 
integral development for their peoples through free and                       
unconditional cooperation, in accordance with the goals and                   
priorities set by each country.                                               
5. Article 35 of the Protocol, which supplements and develops                 
Article 15 of the Charter with reference to transnational                     
enterprises and private investment, stipulates that such enterprises          
and investments shall adapt to the development policy of the                  
recipient countries and are subject to their legislation, to the              
jurisdiction of their competent courts, and to any international              
treaties and agreements to which they are parties.                            
c.  Panama:                                                                   
    (Statement made at the time of ratification)                              
     In ratifying the Protocol of Amendment to the Charter of the             
Organization of American States, Protocol of Cartagena de Indias,             
the Republic of Panama pronounces the Protocol a solemn                       
reaffirmation of the Organization's purposes of achieving an order            
of peace and justice and promoting the solidarity, strengthening the          
collaboration, and defending the sovereignty, territorial integrity           
and independence of the Member American States.  It also declares             
that the provisions of the Protocol shall be binding on the Republic          
of Panama whenever applied in accordance with the following                   
1. Article 1 of the Charter of the Organization of American States,           
as amended by the Protocol of Cartagena de  Indias, empowers no               
organ of the Organization of American States (OAS) to take, under             
the Charter, the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio          
Treaty) or any other pretext, any action or measure that implies any          
derogation from the sovereignty, territorial integrity or national            
independence of Member States, neither does it authorize any                  
intervention in their internal or external affairs.                           
2. Paragraph e) in Article 3 of the Charter, as amended by the                
Protocol of Cartagena de Indias, enshrines political pluralism as a           
basic principle of inter-American comity and reaffirms the right of           
each State to choose, without external interference, the political,           
economic and social organization best suited to it.                           
3. Article 23 of the Charter of the Organization as amended by the            
Protocol of Cartagena de Indias, in accordance with Article 136 of            
the Charter, leaves intact the rights and obligations of the Member           
States under Articles 34 and 35 of the Charter of the United                  
Nations, and each Member State may exercise as needed its sovereign           
right to resort to the international forum that best meets its                
national interest.                                                            
4. Articles 29 and 30 of the Charter, as amended by the Protocol of           
Cartagena de Indias, pledge the Member States to a united effort to           
ensure international social justice as a condition essential to               
peace and security in the hemisphere, and further reaffirm that               
inter-American cooperation for the integral development of the                
Member States must be without political ties or conditions and must           
respect national sovereignty and the objectives and priorities that           
each country sets for itself.                                                 
5. Article 35 of the Charter, as amended by the Protocol of                   
Cartagena de Indias, complements Article 15 of the Charter and                
extends its scope to embrace transnational enterprises and foreign            
private investment, making the ineluctably subject to the                     
legislation of the host countries and the jurisdiction of their               
competent courts, to the international treaties and agreements to             
which those countries are parties, and to the development policies            
of the recipient countries.