ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
AGOA Africa Growth and Opportunity Act
AU African Union
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
DAC Development Assistance Committee
EBA “Everything But Arms”
ECA Economic Commission for Africa
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation
FARA Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa
GDP gross domestic product
GEF Global Environment Facility
GESI Global Environmental Sanitation Initiative
GIS Geographic Information System
GNP gross national product
GSP Generalised System of Preferences
HIPC Highly Indebted Poor Country
HIV/AIDS human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome
IAF International Accreditation Forum
ICT information and communications technology
IDA international development assistance
IDG International Development Goal
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IMF International Monetary Fund
ISO International Standards Organisation
ODA overseas development assistance
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
PPP public-private partnership
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
RETOSA Regional Tourism Organisation of Southern Africa
SADC Southern African Development Community
TBT Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
UN United Nations
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
US United States
WHO World Health Organisation
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organisation
WTO World Trade Organisation
1. This New Partnership for Africa’s Development is a pledge by African leaders, based on a common vision and a firm and shared conviction, that they have a pressing duty to eradicate poverty and to place their countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and development and, at the same time, to participate actively in the world economy and body politic. The Programme is anchored on the determination of Africans to extricate themselves and the continent from the malaise of underdevelopment and exclusion in a globalising world.
2. The poverty and backwardness of Africa stand in stark contrast to the prosperity of the developed world. The continued marginalisation of Africa from the globalisation process and the social exclusion of the vast majority of its peoples constitute a serious threat to global stability.
3. Historically accession to the institutions of the international community, the credit and aid binomial has underlined the logic of African development. Credit has led to the debt deadlock which, from instalments to rescheduling, still exists and hinders the growth of African countries. The limits of this option have been reached. Concerning the other element of the binomial – aid – we can also note the reduction of private aid and the upper limit of public aid, which is below the target set in the 1970s.
4. In Africa, 340 million people, or half the population, live on less than US $1 per day. The mortality rate of children under 5 years of age is 140 per 1000, and life expectancy at birth is only 54 years. Only 58 per cent of the population have access to safe water. The rate of illiteracy for people over 15 is 41 per cent. There are only 18 mainline telephones per 1000 people in Africa, compared with 146 for the world as a whole and 567 for high-income countries.
5. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development calls for the reversal of this abnormal situation by changing the relationship that underpins it. Africans are appealing neither for the further entrenchment of dependency through aid, nor for marginal concessions.
6. We are convinced that an historic opportunity presents itself to end the scourge of underdevelopment that afflicts Africa. The resources, including capital, technology and human skills, that are required to launch a global war on poverty and underdevelopment exist in abundance and are within our reach. What is required to mobilise these resources and to use them properly, is bold and imaginative leadership that is genuinely committed to a sustained human development effort and the eradication of poverty, as well as a new global partnership based on shared responsibility and mutual interest.
7. Across the continent, Africans declare that we will no longer allow ourselves to be conditioned by circumstance. We will determine our own destiny and call on the rest of the world to complement our efforts. There are already signs of progress and hope. Democratic regimes that are committed to the protection of human rights, people- centred development and market-oriented economies are on the increase. African peoples have begun to demonstrate their refusal to accept poor economic and political leadership. These developments are, however, uneven and inadequate and need to be further expedited.
8. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development is about consolidating and accelerating these gains. It is a call for a new relationship of partnership between
Africa and the international community, especially the highly industrialised countries, to overcome the development chasm that has widened over centuries of unequal relations.
II. AFRICA IN TODAY’S WORLD:
BETWEEN POVERTY AND PROSPERITY
9. Africa’s place in the global community is defined by the fact that the continent is an indispensable resource base that has served all humanity for so many centuries.
10. These resources can be broken down into the following components:
– The rich complex of mineral, oil and gas deposits, the flora and fauna, and the wide unspoiled natural habitat, which provide the basis for mining, agriculture, tourism and industrial development (Component I);
– The ecological lung provided by the continent’s rainforests, and the minimal presence of emissions and effluents that are harmful to the environment – a global
public good that benefits all humankind (Component II);
– The palaeontological and archaeological sites containing evidence of the origins of the earth, life and the human race, and the natural habitats containing a wide
variety of flora and fauna, unique animal species and the open uninhabited spaces that are a feature of the continent (Component III);
– The richness of Africa’s culture and its contribution to the variety of the cultures of the global community (Component IV).
11. The first of component is the one with which the world is most familiar. The second component has only come to the fore recently, as humanity came to understand the critical importance of environmental issues. The third component is also now coming into its own, emerging as a matter of concern not only to a narrow field of science or of interest only to museums and their curators. The fourth component represents the creativity of African people, which in many important ways remains underexploited and underdeveloped.
12. Africa has a very important role to play with regard to the critical issue of protecting the environment. African resources include rainforests, the virtually carbon dioxide- free atmosphere above the continent and the minimal presence of toxic effluents in the rivers and soils that interact with the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development will contain a strategy for nurturing these resources and using them for the development of the African continent while, at the same time preserving them for all humanity.
13. It is obvious that, unless the communities in the vicinity of the tropical forests are
given alternative means of earning a living, they will cooperate in the destruction of
the forests. As the preservation of these environmental assets is in the interests of
humanity, it is imperative that Africa be placed on a development path that does not
put them in danger.
14. Modern science recognises Africa as the cradle of humankind. As part of the process of reconstructing the identity and self-confidence of the peoples of Africa, it is necessary that this contribution to human existence be understood and valued by Africans themselves. Africa’s status as the birthplace of humanity should be cherished by the whole world as the origin of all its peoples. Accordingly, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development must preserve this common heritage and use it to build a universal understanding of the historic need to end the underdevelopment and marginalisation of the continent.
15. Africa also has a major role to play in maintaining the strong link between human beings and the natural world. Technological developments tend to emphasise the role of human beings as a factor of production, competing for their place in the production process with their contemporary or future tools. The open uninhabited spaces, the flora and fauna, and the diverse animal species unique to Africa offer an opportunity for humanity to maintain its link with nature.
16. Africa has already made a significant contribution to world culture through literature, music, visual arts and other cultural forms, but its real potential remains untapped because of its limited integration into the global economy. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development will enable Africa to increase its contribution to science, culture and technology.
17. In this new millennium, when humanity is searching for a new way in which to build a better world, it is critical that we bring to bear the combination of these attributes and the forces of human will to place the continent on a pedestal of equal partnership in advancing human civilisation.
The Historical Impoverishment of a Continent
18. The impoverishment of the African continent was accentuated primarily by the legacy of colonialism, the Cold War, the workings of the international economic system, and the inadequacies of and shortcomings in the policies pursued by many countries in the post-independence era.
19. For centuries, Africa has been integrated into the world economy mainly as a supplier
of cheap labour and raw materials. Of necessity, this has meant the draining of
Africa’s resources rather than their use for the continent’s development. The drive in
that period to use the minerals and raw materials to develop manufacturing industries
and a highly skilled labour force to sustain growth and development was lost. Thus,
Africa remains the poorest continent despite being one of the most richly endowed
regions of the world.
20. In other countries and on other continents, the reverse was the case. There was an infusion of wealth in the form of investments, which created larger volumes of wealth through the export of value-added products. It is time that African resources are harnessed to create wealth for the well-being of its peoples.
21. Colonialism subverted hitherto traditional structures, institutions and values or made them subservient to the economic and political needs of the imperial powers. It also retarded the development of an entrepreneurial class, as well as a middle class with skills and managerial capacity.
22. At independence, virtually all the new states were characterised by a shortage of skilled professionals and a weak capitalist class, resulting in a weakening of the accumulation process. Post-colonial Africa inherited weak states and dysfunctional economies, which were further aggravated by poor leadership, corruption and bad governance in many countries. These two factors, together with the divisions caused by the Cold War, hampered the development of accountable governments across the continent.
23. Many African governments did not empower their peoples to embark on development initiatives to realise their creative potential. Today, the weak state remains a major constraint on sustainable development in a number of countries. Indeed, one of Africa’s major challenges is to strengthen the capacity to govern and to develop long- term policies. At the same time, there is also the urgent need to implement far- reaching reforms and programmes in many African states.
24. The structural adjustment programmes of the 1980s provided only a partial solution. They promoted reforms that tended to remove serious price distortions, but gave inadequate attention to the provision of social services. Consequently, only a few countries managed to achieve sustainable higher growth under these programmes.
25. Indeed, Africa’s experience shows that the rate of accumulation in the post-colonial period has not been sufficient to rebuild societies in the wake of colonial
underdevelopment, or to sustain improvement in the standard of living. This has had deleterious consequences on the political process and led to sustained patronage and corruption.
26. The nett effect of these processes has been the entrenchment of a vicious cycle, in which economic decline, reduced capacity and poor governance reinforce each other, thereby confirming Africa’s peripheral and diminishing role in the world economy. Thus, over the centuries, Africa has become the marginalised continent.
27. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development seeks to build on and celebrate the achievements of the past, as well as reflect on the lessons learned through painful experience, so as to establish a partnership that is both credible and capable of implementation. In doing so, the challenge is for the peoples and governments of Africa to understand that development is a process of empowerment and self-reliance. Accordingly, Africans must not be wards of benevolent guardians; rather they must be the architects of their own sustained upliftment.
Africa and the Global Revolution
28. The world has entered the new millennium in the midst of an economic revolution. This revolution could provide both the context and the means for Africa’s
rejuvenation. While globalisation has increased the cost of Africa’s ability to compete, we hold that the advantages of an effectively managed integration present
the best prospects for future economic prosperity and poverty reduction.
29. The current economic revolution has, in part, been made possible by advances in information and communications technology (ICT), which have reduced the cost of and increased the speed of communications across the globe, abolishing pre-existing barriers of time and space, and affecting all areas of social and economic life. It has made possible the integration of national systems of production and finance, and is reflected in an exponential growth in the scale of cross-border flows of goods, services and capital.
30. The integration of national systems of production has made it possible to “slice up the value chain” in many manufacturing and service-sector production processes. At the same time, the enhanced mobility of capital means that borrowers, whether governments or private entities, must compete with each other for capital in global rather than national markets. Both these processes have increased the costs to those countries that are unable to compete effectively. To a large extent, these costs have been borne disproportionately by Africa.
31. While no corner of the world has escaped the effects of globalisation, the
contributions of the various regions and nations have differed markedly. The
locomotive for these major advances is the highly industrialised nations. Outside this domain, only a few countries in the developing world play a substantial role in the global economy. Many developing countries, especially in Africa, contribute passively, and mainly on the basis of their environmental and resource
32. It is in the distribution of benefits that the global imbalance is most glaring. On the one hand, opportunities have increased to create or expand wealth, acquire knowledge and skills, and improve access to goods and services – in brief, to improve the quality of life. In some parts of the world, the pursuit of greater openness of the global economy has created opportunities for lifting millions of people out of poverty.
33. On the other hand, greater integration has also led to the further marginalisation of those countries that are unable to compete effectively. In the absence of fair and just global rules, globalisation has increased the ability of the strong to advance their interests to the detriment of the weak, especially in the areas of trade, finance and technology. It has limited the space for developing countries to control their own development, as the system makes no provision for compensating the weak. The conditions of those marginalised in this process have worsened in real terms. A fissure between inclusion and exclusion has emerged within and among nations.
34. In part, Africa’s inability to harness the process of globalisation is a result of structural impediments to growth and development in the form of resource outflows and unfavourable terms of trade. At the same time, we recognise that failures of political and economic leadership in many African countries impede the effective mobilisation and utilisation of scarce resources into productive areas of activity in order to attract and facilitate domestic and foreign investment.
35. The low level of economic activity means that the instruments necessary for the real injection of private funds and risk-taking are not available, and the result is a further decline. In this self-perpetuating cycle, Africa’s capacity to participate in the globalisation process is severely weakened, leading to further marginalisation. The increasing polarisation of wealth and poverty is one of a number of processes that have accompanied globalisation, and which threaten its sustainability.
36. The closing years of the last century saw a major financial collapse in much of the developing world, which not only threatened the stability of the global financial system, but also the global economy as a whole. One of the immediate effects of the financial crisis was the exacerbation of existing levels of deep, structural poverty in which about half of the world’s population lives on less than US $2 per day, and a fifth on less than US $1 per day.
37. Other factors exist that pose serious longer-term risks. These include the rapid increase in the numbers of the socially excluded in different parts of the world, which contributes to political instability, civil war and military conflict on the one hand, and a new pattern of mass migration on the other. The expansion of industrial production and the growth in poverty contribute to environmental degradation of our oceans, atmosphere and natural vegetation. If not addressed, these will set in motion processes that will increasingly slip beyond the control of governments, both in developed and developing countries.
38. The means of reversing this gloomy scenario are not yet beyond our reach. Improvements in the living standards of the marginalised offer massive potential for
growth in the entire international economy, through the creation of new markets and by harnessing increased economic capacity. This will bring with it greater stability on a global scale, accompanied by a sense of economic and social well-being.
39. The imperative of development, therefore, not only poses a challenge to moral conscience; it is, in fact, fundamental to the sustainability of the globalisation process. We readily admit that globalisation is a product of scientific and technological advances, many of which have been market driven. Yet, governments – particularly those in the developed world – have, in partnership with the private sector, played an important role in shaping its form, content and course.
40. The case for the role of national authorities and private institutions in guiding the globalisation agenda along a sustainable path and, therefore, one in which its benefits are more equally spread, remains strong. Experience shows that, despite the unparalleled opportunities that globalisation has offered to some previously poor countries, there is nothing inherent in the process that automatically reduces poverty and inequality.
41. What is needed is a commitment on the part of governments, the private sector and other institutions of civil society, to genuine integration of all nations into the global economy and body politic. This requires the recognition of global interdependence with regard to production and demand, the environmental base that sustains the planet, cross-border migration, a global financial architecture that rewards good socio-economic management, and global governance that recognises partnership among all peoples. We hold that it is within the capacity of the international community to create fair and just conditions in which Africa can participate
effectively in the global economy and body politic.
III. THE NEW POLITICAL WILL OF AFRICAN LEADERS
42. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development recognises that there have been attempts in the past to set out continent-wide development programmes. For a variety of reasons, both internal and external, including questionable leadership and ownership by Africans themselves, these have been less than successful. However, there is today a new set of circumstances, which lend themselves to integrated practical implementation.
43. The new phase of globalisation coincided with the reshaping of international relations in the aftermath of the Cold War. This is associated with the emergence of new concepts of security and self-interest, which encompass the right to development and the eradication of poverty. Democracy and state legitimacy have been redefined to include accountable government, a culture of human rights and popular participation as central elements.
44. Significantly, the numbers of democratically elected leaders are on the increase. Through their actions, they have declared that the hopes of Africa’s peoples for a better life can no longer rest on the magnanimity of others.
45. Across the continent, democracy is spreading, backed by the African Union (AU), which has shown a new resolve to deal with conflicts and censure deviation from the norm. These efforts are reinforced by voices in civil society, including associations of women, youth and the independent media. In addition, African governments are much more resolute about regional and continental goals of economic cooperation and integration. This serves both to consolidate the gains of the economic turnaround and to reinforce the advantages of mutual interdependence.
46. The changed conditions in Africa have already been recognised by governments across the world. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, adopted in September 2000, confirms the global community’s readiness to support Africa’s efforts to address the continent’s underdevelopment and marginalisation. The Declaration emphasises support for the prevention of conflict and the establishment of conditions of stability and democracy on the continent, as well as for the key challenges of eradicating poverty and disease. The Declaration further points to the global community’s commitment to enhance resource flows to Africa, by improving aid, trade and debt relationships between Africa and the rest of the world, and by increasing private capital flows to the continent. It is now important to translate these commitments into reality.
47. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development centres on African ownership and
management. Through this programme, African leaders are setting an agenda for the
renewal of the continent. The agenda is based on national and regional priorities and
development plans that must be prepared through participatory processes involving
the people. We believe that while African leaders derive their mandates from their
people, it is their role to articulate these plans and lead the processes of
implementation on behalf of their people.
48. The programme is a new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organisations. It is based on the agenda set by African peoples through their own initiatives and of their own volition, to shape their own destiny.
49. To achieve these objectives, African leaders will take joint responsibility for the following:
– Strengthening mechanisms for conflict prevention, management and resolution at the subregional and continental levels, and to ensure that these mechanisms are
used to restore and maintain peace;
– Promoting and protecting democracy and human rights in their respective countries and regions, by developing clear standards of accountability, transparency and participatory governance at the national and subnational levels;
– Restoring and maintaining macroeconomic stability, especially by developing appropriate standards and targets for fiscal and monetary policies, and introducing
appropriate institutional frameworks to achieve these standards;
– Instituting transparent legal and regulatory frameworks for financial markets and the auditing of private companies and the public sector;
– Revitalising and extending the provision of education, technical training and health services, with high priority given to addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other communicable diseases;
– Promoting the role of women in social and economic development by reinforcing their capacity in the domains of education and training; by developing revenue-
generating activities through facilitating access to credit; and by assuring their participation in the political and economic life of African countries;
– Building the capacity of the states in Africa to set and enforce the legal framework,
and to maintain law and order;
– Promoting the development of infrastructure, agriculture and its diversification into agro-industries and manufacturing to serve both domestic and export markets.
IV. APPEAL TO THE PEOPLES OF AFRICA
50. The African Renaissance project should allow our continent, which has been plundered for centuries, to take its rightful place in the world. It depends on the
building of a strong, competitive economy as the world moves towards greater liberalisation and competition.
51. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development will be successful only if it is owned by the African peoples united in their diversity.
52. Africa, impoverished by slavery, corruption and economic mismanagement, is taking off in a difficult situation. However, if the continent’s enormous natural and human resources are properly harnessed and utilised, it could lead to equitable and sustainable growth, and enhance Africa’s rapid integration into the world economy.
53. This is why our peoples, in spite of the present difficulties, must regain confidence in their genius and their capacity to face obstacles and be involved in the building of the new Africa. The present initiative is an expression of the commitment of Africa’s leaders to translate the deep popular will into action.
54. However, the struggle they would be waging will be successful only if our peoples are the masters of their own destiny.
55. This is why the political leaders of the continent appeal to all the peoples of Africa, in all their diversity, to recognise the seriousness of the situation and the need to mobilise themselves in order to put an end to further marginalisation of the continent and to ensure its development by bridging the gap between Africa and the developed countries.
56. We are, therefore, asking the African peoples to take up the challenge of mobilising in support of the implementation of this initiative by setting up, at all levels, structures for organisation, mobilisation and action.
57. The leaders of the continent are aware of the fact that the true genius of a people is measured by its capacity for bold and imaginative thinking, and its determination in support of its own development.
58. We must not relent in implementing this ambitious programme of building sound and resilient economies and democratic societies. In this respect, the African leaders are convinced that Africa, a continent whose development process has been marked by false starts and failures, will succeed in this initiative.
V. PROGRAMME OF ACTION: THE STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY
59. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development differs in its approach and strategy from all previous plans and initiatives in support of Africa’s development, although the problems to be addressed remain largely the same.
60. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development is envisaged as a long-term vision of an African-owned and African-led development programme.
61. The Action Programme includes the top priorities structured in the same way as the strategy outlined, and these priorities may be revised from time to time by the Heads of State Implementation Committee. The Programme covers what needs to be done in the short term, despite the wide scope of the actions to be taken.
62. Although long-term funding is envisaged under this initiative, the projects can be expedited to help eradicate poverty in Africa and place African countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and development and thus halt the marginalisation of Africa in the globalisation process.
63. Although there are other urgent priorities, those selected here would serve as a catalyst for intervention in other priority areas in the future.
64. While growth rates are important, they are not by themselves sufficient to enable African countries to achieve the goal of poverty reduction. The challenge for Africa, therefore, is to develop the capacity to sustain growth at levels required to achieve poverty reduction and sustainable development. This, in turn, depends on other factors such as infrastructure, capital accumulation, human capital, institutions, structural diversification, competitiveness, health, and good stewardship of the environment.
65. The objective of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development is to give impetus to Africa’s development by bridging existing gaps in priority sectors in order to enable the continent to catch up with developed parts of the world.
66. The new long-term vision will require massive, heavy investment to bridge existing gaps. The challenge ahead for Africa is to be able to raise the required funding under the best conditions possible. We therefore call on our development partners to assist us in this endeavour.
67. Long-term objectives
– To eradicate poverty in Africa and to place African countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and development and thus halt the marginalisation of Africa in the globalisation process;
– To promote the role of women in all activities.
– To achieve and sustain an average gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of over 7 per cent per annum for the next 15 years;
– To ensure that the continent achieves the agreed International Development Goals (IDGs), which are:
• To reduce the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by half between 1990 and 2015;
• To enrol all children of school age in primary schools by 2015;
• To make progress towards gender equality and empowering women by eliminating gender disparities in the enrolment in primary and secondary education by 2005;
• To reduce infant and child mortality ratios by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015;
• To reduce maternal mortality ratios by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015;
• To provide access for all who need reproductive health services by 2015;
• To implement national strategies for sustainable development by 2005, so as to reverse the loss of environmental resources by 2015.
69. The strategy has the following expected outcomes:
– Economic growth and development and increased employment;
– Reduction in poverty and inequality;
– Diversification of productive activities, enhanced international competitiveness and
– Increased African integration.
70. Realising that unless something new and radical is done, Africa will not achieve the IDGs and the 7 per cent annual GDP growth rate, the African heads of state propose the programme described below. The programme is anchored on key themes and is supported by detailed programmes of action.
A. CONDITIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
A1. THE PEACE, SECURITY, DEMOCRACY AND POLITICAL GOVERNANCE INITIATIVES
71. African leaders have learned from their own experiences that peace, security, democracy, good governance, human rights and sound economic management are conditions for sustainable development. They are making a pledge to work, both individually and collectively, to promote these principles in their countries and
subregions and on the continent.
(i) Peace and Security Initiative
72. The Peace and Security Initiative consists of three elements:
– Promoting long-term conditions for development and security;
– Building the capacity of African institutions for early warning, as well as enhancing their capacity to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts;
– Institutionalising commitment to the core values of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development through the leadership.
73. Long-term conditions for ensuring peace and security in Africa require policy measures for addressing the political and social vulnerabilities on which conflict is
premised. These are dealt with by the Political and Economic Governance Initiatives, the Capital Flows and Market Access Initiatives, and the Human Development Initiative.
74. Efforts to build Africa’s capacity to manage all aspects of conflict must focus on the means necessary to strengthen existing regional and subregional institutions, especially in four key areas:
– Prevention, management and resolution of conflict;
– Peacemaking, peacekeeping and peace enforcement;
– Post-conflict reconciliation, rehabilitation and reconstruction;
– Combating the illicit proliferation of small arms, light weapons and landmines.
75. The leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will consider, within
six months of its establishment, setting out detailed and costed measures required in
each of the four areas above. The exercise will also include the actions required of
partners, and the nature and sources of financing such activities.
76. The envisaged Heads of State Forum will serve as a platform for the leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development to seek to enhance the capacity of African institutions to promote peace and security on the continent, to share experience and to mobilise collective action. The Forum will ensure that the principles and commitments implicit in this initiative are fulfilled.
77. Aware of that requirement, Africans must make all efforts to find a lasting solution to existing conflicts, to strengthen their internal security and to promote peace among the countries.
78. At the Lusaka Summit, the AU decided to take drastic measures in reviving the organs responsible for conflict prevention and resolution.
(ii) Democracy and Political Governance Initiative
79. It is generally acknowledged that development is impossible in the absence of true democracy, respect for human rights, peace and good governance. With the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, Africa undertakes to respect the global standards of democracy, the core components of which include political pluralism, allowing for the existence of several political parties and workers’ unions, and fair, open and democratic elections periodically organised to enable people to choose their leaders freely.
80. The purpose of the Democracy and Political Governance Initiative is to contribute to strengthening the political and administrative framework of participating countries, in line with the principles of democracy, transparency, accountability, integrity, respect for human rights and promotion of the rule of law. It is strengthened by and supports the Economic Governance Initiative, with which it shares key features. Taken together, these initiatives will contribute to harnessing the energies of the continent towards development and the eradication of poverty.
81. The Initiative consists of the following elements:
– A series of commitments by participating countries to create or consolidate basic governance processes and practices;
– An undertaking by participating countries to take the lead in supporting initiatives that foster good governance;
– The institutionalisation of commitments through the leadership of the New
Partnership for Africa’s Development to ensure that the core values of the initiative
are abided by.
82. The states involved in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will also undertake a series of commitments towards meeting basic standards of good
governance and democratic behaviour while, at the same time, giving support to each other. Participating states will be supported in undertaking such desired institutional reforms where required. Within six months of its institutionalisation, the leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will identify recommendations on appropriate diagnostic and assessment tools, in support of compliance with the shared goals of good governance, as well as identify institutional weaknesses and seek resources and expertise for addressing these weaknesses.
83. In order to strengthen political governance and build capacity to meet these commitments, the leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will
undertake a process of targeted capacity-building initiatives. These institutional reforms will focus on:
– Administrative and civil services;
– Strengthening parliamentary oversight;
– Promoting participatory decision-making;
– Adopting effective measures to combat corruption and embezzlement;
– Undertaking judicial reforms.
84. Countries participating in the initiative will take the lead in supporting and building institutions and initiatives that protect these commitments. They will dedicate their efforts towards creating and strengthening national, subregional and continental structures that support good governance.
85. The Heads of State Forum on the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will serve as a mechanism through which the leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will periodically monitor and assess the progress made by African countries in meeting their commitment towards achieving good governance and social reforms. The Forum will also provide a platform for countries to share experiences with a view to fostering good governance and democratic practices.
A2. THE ECONOMIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE INITIATIVE
86. State capacity-building is a critical aspect of creating conditions for development. The state has a major role to play in promoting economic growth and development, and in implementing poverty reduction programmes. However, the reality is that many governments lack the capacity to fulfil this role. As a consequence, many countries lack the necessary policy and regulatory frameworks for private sector-led growth. They also lack the capacity to implement programmes, even when funding is available.
87. It is for this reason that targeted capacity-building should be given high priority. Programmes in every area should be preceded by an assessment of capacity, followed by the provision of appropriate support.
To promote throughout the participating countries a set of concrete and timebound programmes aimed at enhancing the quality of economic and public financial
management, as well as corporate governance.
– A Task Force from the Ministries of Finance and Central Banks will be commissioned to review economic and corporate governance practices in the
various countries and regions, and to make recommendations on appropriate standards and codes of good practice for consideration by the Heads of State
Implementation Committee within six months;
– The Implementation Committee will refer its recommendations to African states for implementation;
– The Implementation Committee will give high priority to public financial management. Countries will develop a programme for improving public financial
management and targets, and assessment mechanisms will also be set in place;
– The Heads of State Implementation Committee will mobilise resources for
capacity-building to enable all countries to comply with the mutually agreed
minimum standards and codes of conduct.
Subregional and Regional Approaches to Development
90. Most African countries are small, both in terms of population and per capita incomes. Owing to limited markets, they do not offer attractive returns to potential investors, while progress in diversifying production and exports is retarded. This limits investment in essential infrastructure that depends on economies of scale for viability.
91. These economic conditions point to the need for African countries to pool their resources and enhance regional development and economic integration on the
continent, in order to improve international competitiveness. The five subregional economic groupings of the continent must, therefore, be strengthened.
92. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development focuses on the provision of essential regional public goods (such as transport, energy, water, ICT, disease eradication, environmental preservation, and provision of regional research capacity), as well as the promotion of intra-African trade and investments. The focus will be on rationalising the institutional framework for economic integration, by identifying common projects compatible with integrated country and regional development programmes, and on the harmonisation of economic and investment policies and practices. There needs to be coordination of national sector policies and effective monitoring of regional decisions.
93. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development will give priority to capacity-building in order to enhance the effectiveness of existing regional structures and the rationalisation of existing regional organisations. The African Development Bank must play a leading role in financing regional studies, programmes and projects.
94. The sectors covered by the current Programme include the following priority areas:
– Infrastructure, especially ICT and energy;
– Human resources, including education, skills development and reversing the brain drain;
– Access to the markets of developed countries for African exports.
95. For each sector, however, the objective is to bridge existing gaps between Africa and the developed countries so as to improve the continent’s international competitiveness and enable it to participate in the globalisation process. The special circumstances of African island and landlocked states will also be addressed in this context.
B. SECTORAL PRIORITIES
B1. BRIDGING THE INFRASTRUCTURE GAP
(i) All Infrastructure Sectors
96. The infrastructures considered include roads, highways, airports, seaports, railways, waterways, and telecommunications facilities. However, only subregional or continental infrastructures will be the focus of the Plan.
97. Infrastructure is one of the major parameters of economic growth, and solutions should be found to permit Africa to rise to the level of developed countries in terms of the accumulation of material and human capital.
98. If Africa had the same basic infrastructure as developed countries, it would be in a more favourable position to focus on production and on improving productivity for international competition. The structural gap in infrastructure constitutes a very serious handicap to economic growth and poverty reduction. Improved infrastructure, including the cost and reliability of services, would benefit both Africa and the international community, which would be able to obtain African goods and services more cheaply.
99. In many African countries, the colonial powers built the infrastructure to facilitate the exportation of raw materials from Africa and the importation of industrial goods into Africa.
100. We also recognise that, if infrastructure is to improve in Africa, private foreign finance is essential to complement the two major funding methods, namely credit and aid.
101. The Infrastructure Initiative comprises elements common to all the infrastructure sectors. It also includes elements that are sector specific.
– To improve access to, and affordability and reliability of, infrastructure services for both firms and households;
– To enhance regional cooperation and trade through expanded cross-border development of infrastructure;
– To increase financial investments in infrastructure by lowering risks facing private
investors, especially in the area of policy and regulatory frameworks;
– To build adequate knowledge and skills in technology and engineering with a view to installing, operating and maintaining “hard” infrastructure networks in Africa.
– With the assistance of sector-specialised agencies, put in place policy and legislative frameworks to encourage competition. At the same time, introduce new
regulatory frameworks and build capacity for regulators, so as to promote policy and regulatory harmonisation in order to facilitate cross-border interaction and
– Increase investment in infrastructure, especially refurbishment, and improve system maintenance practices that will sustain infrastructure;
– Initiate the development of training institutions and networks that can develop and produce highly skilled technicians and engineers in all infrastructure sectors;
– Promote community and user involvement in infrastructure construction, maintenance and management, especially in poor urban and rural areas, in
collaboration with the governance initiatives of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development;
– Work with the African Development Bank and other development finance institutions on the continent to mobilise sustainable financing, especially through
multilateral processes, institutions and donor governments, with a view to securing grant and concessional finance to mitigate medium-term risks;
– Promote public-private partnerships (PPPs) as a promising vehicle for attracting private investors, and focus public funding on the pressing needs of the poor, by
building capacity to implement and monitor such agreements;
– In addition to these common issues, the following are sector-specific strategies for the different types of infrastructure.
(ii) Bridging the Digital Divide: Investing in Information and Communication
104. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), driven by the convergence of computers, telecommunications and traditional media, are crucial for the knowledge- based economy of the future. Rapid advances in technology and the diminishing cost of acquiring the new ICT tools have opened new windows of opportunity for African countries to accelerate their economic growth and development. The goals of achieving a Common Market and an African Union can benefit immensely from the revolution in information technology. In addition to fostering intra-regional trade, the use of ICTs could also accelerate Africa’s integration into the global economy.
105. Intensive use of ICTs can bring unprecedented comparative advantages to the
– It can give impetus to the democratisation process and good governance;
– It can facilitate the integration of Africa into the new information society, using its cultural diversity as a leverage;
– ICTs can be helpful tools in a wide range of applications, such as remote sensing and environmental, agricultural and infrastructural planning;
– The existing complementarities can be better utilised to provide training that would allow for the production of a critical mass of professionals in the use of ICTs;
– In the research sector, we can establish African programmes as well as technological exchange programmes capable of meeting the continent’s specific
needs, with particular regard to the fight against illiteracy;
– ICTs can be used to identify and exploit opportunities for trade, investment and finance;
– They can be used to establish regional distance learning and health education programmes to improve the situation in the health and education sectors;
– In conflict management and the control of pandemic diseases, ICTs will help towards the organisation of an efficient early warning mechanism by providing the
tools for constant monitoring of tension spots.
106. In Africa, poor ICT infrastructure, combined with weak policy and regulatory
frameworks and limited human resources, has resulted in inadequate access to
affordable telephones, broadcasting, computers and the Internet. African teledensity remains below one line per 100 people. Service costs are also high: the connection cost in Africa averages 20 per cent of GDP per capita, compared with the world average of 9 per cent, and 1 per cent for high-income countries. Africa has been unable to capitalise on ICT as a tool in enhancing livelihoods and creating new business opportunities, and cross-border linkages within the continent and with global markets have been constrained. Although many countries in Africa have started ICT policy reforms, service penetration, quality and tariffs have not yet improved.
– To double teledensity to two lines per 100 people by 2005, with an adequate level of access for households;
– To lower the cost and improve reliability of service;
– To achieve e-readiness for all countries in Africa;
– To develop and produce a pool of ICT-proficient youth and students from which Africa can draw trainee ICT engineers, programmers and software developers;
– To develop local-content software, based especially on Africa’s cultural legacy.
– Work with regional agencies such as the African Telecommunications Union and Africa Connection to design model policy and legislation for telecommunications reform, and protocols and templates for e-readiness assessments;
– Work with the regional agencies to build regulatory capacity;
– Establish a network of training and research institutions to build high-level manpower;
– Promote and accelerate existing projects to connect schools and youth centres;
– Work with development finance institutions in Africa, multilateral initiatives (G-8 DotForce, UN Task Force) and bilateral donors to establish financial mechanisms for mitigating and reducing sector risks.
– Energy plays a critical role in the development process, first as a domestic necessity but also as a factor of production whose cost directly affects prices of
other goods and services, and the competitiveness of enterprises. Given the uneven distribution of these resources on the African continent, it is recommended that the search for abundant and cheap energy should focus on rationalising the territorial distribution of existing but unevenly allocated energy resources. Furthermore,
Africa should strive to develop its abundant solar energy resources;
– To increase Africans’ access to reliable and affordable commercial energy supply from 10 to 35 per cent or more within 20 years;
– To improve the reliability and lower the cost of energy supply to productive activities in order to enable economic growth of 6 per cent per annum;
– To reverse environmental degradation that is associated with the use of traditional fuels in rural areas;
– To exploit and develop the hydropower potential of the river basins of Africa;
– To integrate transmission grids and gas pipelines so as to facilitate cross-border energy flows;
– To reform and harmonise petroleum regulations and legislation on the continent.
– Establish an African Forum for Utility Regulation and establish regional regulatory associations;
– Establish a task force to recommend priorities and implementation strategies for regional projects, including hydropower generation, transmission grids and gas
– Establish a task team to accelerate the development of energy supply to low- income housing;
– Broaden the scope of the programme for biomass energy conservation from the
Southern African Development Community (SADC) to the rest of the continent.
– To reduce delays in cross-border movement of people, goods and services;
– To reduce waiting time in ports;
– To promote economic activity and cross-border trade through improved land transport linkages;
– To increase air passenger and freight linkages across Africa’s subregions.
– Establish customs and immigration task teams to harmonise border crossing and visa procedures;
– Establish and nurture PPPs as well as grant concessions towards the construction, development and maintenance of ports, roads, railways and maritime
– Promote harmonisation of transport modal standards and regulations, and the increased use of multimodal transport facilities;
– Work with regional organisations to develop transport development corridors;
– Promote PPPs in the rationalisation of the airline industry and build capacity for air traffic control.
(v) Water and Sanitation
– To ensure sustainable access to safe and adequate clean water supply and sanitation, especially for the poor;
– To plan and manage water resources to become a basis for national and regional
cooperation and development;
– To systematically address and sustain ecosystems, biodiversity and wildlife;
– To cooperate on shared rivers among member states;
– To effectively address the threat of climate change;
– To ensure enhanced irrigation and rainfed agriculture to improve agricultural production and food security.
– Accelerate work on multipurpose water resource projects, e.g. the SADC Water Secretariat’s investigation of the utilisation of the Congo River, and the Nile Basin Initiative;
– Establish a task team to make plans for mitigating the negative impact of climate change in Africa;
– Collaborate with the Global Environmental Sanitation Initiative (GESI) in promoting sanitary waste disposal methods and projects;
– Support the UN Habitat programme on water conservation in African cities.
B2. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE, INCLUDING REVERSING THE BRAIN DRAIN
(i) Poverty Reduction
– To provide focused leadership by prioritising poverty reduction in all the programmes and priorities of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, as
well as national macroeconomic and sectoral policies;
– To give special attention to the reduction of poverty among women;
– To ensure empowerment of the poor in poverty reduction strategies;
– To support existing poverty reduction initiatives at the multilateral level, such as
the Comprehensive Development Framework of the World Bank and the Poverty
Reduction Strategy approach linked to the debt relief initiative for Highly Indebted
Poor Countries (HIPCs).
– Require that country plans prepared for initiatives in this programme of action assess their poverty reduction impact, both before and after implementation;
– Work with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the African Development Bank, and the United Nations (UN) agencies to accelerate the
implementation and adoption of the Comprehensive Development Framework, the Poverty Reduction Strategy and related approaches;
– Establish a gender task team to ensure that the specific issues faced by poor women are addressed in the poverty reduction strategies of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development;
– Establish a task team to accelerate the adoption of participatory and decentralised processes for the provision of infrastructural and social services.
(ii) Bridging the Education Gap
– To work with donors and multilateral institutions to ensure that the IDG of achieving universal primary education by 2015 is realised;
– To work for improvements in curriculum development, quality improvements and access to ICT;
– To expand access to secondary education and improve its relevance to Africa’s development;
– To promote networks of specialised research and higher education institutions.
– Review current initiatives jointly with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and other major international donors;
– Review levels of expenditure on education by African countries, and lead the
process of developing norms and standards for government expenditure on
– Set up a task force to accelerate the introduction of ICT in primary schools;
– Set up a task force to review and put forward proposals for the research capacity needed in each region of the continent.
119. The key problems in education in Africa are the poor facilities and inadequate systems under which the vast majority of Africans receive their training. Africans who have had the opportunity of obtaining training elsewhere in the world have demonstrated their ability to compete successfully.
120. The plan supports the immediate strengthening of the university system across Africa, including the creation of specialised universities where needed, building on available African teaching staff. The need to establish and strengthen institutes of technology is especially emphasised.
(iii) Reversing the Brain Drain
– To reverse the brain drain and turn it into a “brain gain” for Africa;
– To build and retain within the continent critical human capacities for Africa’s development;
– To develop strategies for utilising the scientific and technological know-how and skills of Africans in the diaspora for the development of Africa.
– Create the necessary political, social and economic conditions in Africa that would serve as incentives to curb the brain drain and attract much-needed investment;
– Establish a reliable database on the brain drain, both to determine the magnitude of the problem, and to promote networking and collaboration between experts in the country of origin and those in the diaspora;
– Develop scientific and technical networks to channel the repatriation of scientific
knowledge to the home country, and establish cooperation between those abroad
and at home;
– Ensure that the expertise of Africans living in the developed countries is utilised in the execution of some of the projects envisaged under the New Partnership for
– To strengthen programmes for containing communicable diseases, so that they do not fall short of the scale required in order to reduce the burden of disease;
– To have a secure health system that meets needs and supports disease control effectively;
– To ensure the necessary support capacity for the sustainable development of an effective health care delivery system;
– To empower the people of Africa to act to improve their own health and to achieve health literacy;
– To successfully reduce the burden of disease on the poorest people in Africa;
– To encourage cooperation between medical doctors and traditional practitioners.
– Strengthen Africa’s participation in processes aimed at procuring affordable drugs, including those involving the international pharmaceutical companies and the
international civil society, and explore the use of alternative delivery systems for essential drugs and supplies;
– Mobilise the resources required to build effective disease interventions and secure health systems;
– Lead the campaign for increased international financial support for the struggle against HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases;
– Join forces with other international agencies such as the World Health Organisation
(WHO) and donors to ensure that support for the continent is increased by at least
US $10 billion per annum;
– Encourage African countries to give higher priority to health in their own budgets and to phase in such increases in expenditure to a level to be mutually determined;
– Jointly mobilise resources for capacity-building in order to enable all African countries to improve their health infrastructures and management.
125. Africa is home to major endemic diseases. Bacteria and parasites carried by insects, the movement of people and other carriers thrive, favoured as they are by weak environmental policies and poor living conditions. One of the major impediments facing African development efforts is the widespread incidence of communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Unless these epidemics are brought under control, real gains in human development will remain an impossible hope.
126. In the health sector, Africa compares very poorly with the rest of the world. In 1997, child and juvenile death rates were 105 and 169 per 1000, as against 6 and 7 per 1000 respectively in developed countries. Life expectancy is 48.9 years, as against 77.7 years in developed countries. Only 16 doctors are available per 100 000 inhabitants, as against 253 in industrialised countries. Poverty, reflected in very low per capita incomes, is one of the major factors limiting the populations’ capacity to address their health problems.
127. Nutrition is an important ingredient of good health. The average daily intake of calories varies from 2384 in low-income countries to 2846 in middle-income
countries, to 3390 in countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
128. Health, defined by the WHO as a state of complete physical and mental well-being, contributes to increase in productivity and, consequently, to economic growth. The most obvious effects of health improvement on the working population are the reduction in lost working days due to sick leave, the increase in productivity and the chance to secure better-paid jobs. Eventually, improvement in health and nutrition directly contributes to improved well-being as the spread of diseases is controlled, infant mortality rates are reduced and life expectancy is higher. The link with poverty reduction is clearly established.
129. The majority of Africa’s people live in rural areas. However, the agrarian systems are generally weak and unproductive. Coupled with external setbacks such as climatic uncertainty, biases in economic policy and instability in world commodity prices, these systems have held back agricultural supply and incomes in the rural areas, leading to poverty.
130. The urgent need to achieve food security in African countries requires that the problem of inadequate agricultural systems be addressed, so that food production can be increased and nutritional standards raised.
131. Improvement in agricultural performance is a prerequisite of economic development on the continent. The resulting increase in rural peoples’ purchasing power will also lead to higher effective demand for African industrial goods. The induced dynamics would constitute a significant source of economic growth.
132. Productivity improvement in agriculture rests on the removal of a number of structural constraints affecting the sector. A key constraint is climatic uncertainty,
which raises the risk factor facing intensive agriculture based on the significant inflow of private investment. Consequently, governments have to support the provision of irrigation equipment and develop arable lands when private agents are unwilling to do so. The improvement of other rural infrastructure (roads, rural electrification, etc.) is also essential.
133. The institutional environment for agriculture also significantly affects the sector’s productivity and performance. Institutional support in the form of research centres and institutes, the provision of extension and support services, and agricultural trade fairs will further boost the production of marketable surpluses. The regulatory framework for agriculture must also be taken into account, including the encouragement of local community leadership in rural areas, and the involvement of these communities in policy and the provision of services.
134. Bilateral donors and multilateral institutions have paid too little attention to the agricultural sector and rural development, where more than 70 per cent of the poor people in Africa reside. For example, in the World Bank lending portfolio, credits to agriculture amounted to 39 per cent in 1978, but dropped to 12 per cent in 1996 and even further to 7 per cent in 2000. The entire donor community must reverse such negative trends.
B4. THE ENVIRONMENT INITIATIVE
135. It has been recognised that a healthy and productive environment is a prerequisite for the New Partnership for Africa’s Development. It is further recognised that the range of issues necessary to nurture this environmental base is vast and complex, and that a systematic combination of initiatives is necessary to develop a coherent environmental programme. This will necessitate that choices be made and particular issues be prioritised for initial intervention.
136. It is also recognised that a core objective of the Environment Initiative must be to combat poverty and contribute to socio-economic development in Africa. It has been demonstrated in other parts of the world that measures taken to achieve a healthy environmental base can contribute greatly to employment, social and economic empowerment, and reduction of poverty.
137. It should be mentioned here that Africa will host the World Summit on Sustainable Development in September 2002, and that environmental management forms the basis of the Summit. In this regard, we propose that the event put particular emphasis on the deliberations on this theme in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development.
138. The Environment Initiative has targeted eight subthemes for priority interventions:
– Combating Desertification. Initial interventions are envisaged to rehabilitate degraded land and to address the factors that led to such degradation. Many of
these steps will need to be labour intensive, along the lines of “public works programmes”, thereby contributing to the social development needs of the
continent. The initial interventions will serve as best practices or prototypes for future interventions in this area;
– Wetland Conservation. This involves the implementation of African best practices on wetland conservation, where social and ecological benefits are derived
from private sector investment in this area;
– Invasive Alien Species. Partnerships are sought to prevent and control invasive alien species. These partnerships are critical for both the preservation of the
ecosystems and for economic well-being. Major labour-intensive initiatives are possible;
– Coastal Management. In protecting and utilising coastal resources to optimal effect, best practices are again suggested from which a broader programme can be
– Global Warming. The initial focus will be on monitoring and regulating the
impact of climate change. Labour-intensive work is essential and critical to
integrated fire management projects;
– Cross-border Conservation Areas. This subtheme seeks to build on the emerging initiatives, seeking partnerships across countries to boost conservation and tourism and thus create jobs;
– Environmental Governance. This relates to securing institutional, legal, planning, training and capacity-building requirements that underpin all of the above;
– Financing. A carefully structured and fair system for financing is required.
139. The Environment Initiative has a distinct advantage in that many of the projects can start within relatively short time-frames, and they also offer exceptionally good returns on investment in terms of creating the social and ecological base on which the New Partnership for Africa’s Development can thrive.
140. Culture is an integral part of development efforts on the continent. Consequently, it is essential to protect and effectively utilise indigenous knowledge that represents a major dimension of the continent’s culture, and to share this knowledge for the benefit of humankind. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development will give special attention to the protection and nurturing of indigenous knowledge, which includes tradition-based literacy, artistic and scientific works, inventions, scientific discoveries, designs, marks, names and symbols, undisclosed information and all other tradition-based innovations and creations resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary or artistic fields. The term also includes genetic resources and associated knowledge.
141. The leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will take urgent steps to ensure that indigenous knowledge in Africa is protected through appropriate legislation. They will also promote its protection at the international level, by working closely with the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).
B6. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS
– To promote cross-border cooperation and connectivity by utilising the knowledge currently available in existing centres of excellence on the continent;
– To develop and adapt information collection and analysis capacity to support productive as well as export activities;
– To generate a critical mass of technological expertise in targeted areas that offer high growth potential, especially in biotechnology and natural sciences;
– To assimilate and adapt existing technologies to diversify manufacturing production.
– Establish regional cooperation on product standards development and dissemination, and on geographic information systems (GIS);
– Develop networks among existing centres of excellence, especially through the Internet, for cross-border staff exchanges and training programmes, and develop
schemes to assist displaced African scientists and researchers;
– Work with UNESCO, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and other international organisations to harness biotechnology in order to develop Africa’s
rich biodiversity and indigenous knowledge base by improving agricultural productivity and developing pharmaceutical products;
– Expand geoscience research to enhance the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the African continent;
– Establish and develop skills-based product engineering and quality control to support diversification in manufacturing.
C. MOBILISING RESOURCES
C1. THE CAPITAL FLOWS INITIATIVE
144. To achieve the estimated 7 per cent annual growth rate needed to meet the IDGs –
particularly, the goal of reducing by half the proportion of Africans living in poverty
by the year 2015 – Africa needs to fill an annual resource gap of 12 per cent of its
GDP, or US $64 billion. This will require increased domestic savings, as well as
improvements in the public revenue collection systems. However, the bulk of the
needed resources will have to be obtained from outside the continent. The New
Partnership for Africa’s Development focuses on debt reduction and overseas
development assistance (ODA) as complementary external resources required in the
short to medium term, and addresses private capital flows as a longer-term concern. A
basic principle of the Capital Flows Initiative is that improved governance is a
necessary requirement for increased capital flows, so that participation in the
Economic and Political Governance Initiatives is a prerequisite for participation in the
Capital Flows Initiative.
(i) Increasing Domestic Resource Mobilisation
145. To achieve higher levels of growth and more effective poverty reduction, Africa needs to mobilise additional resources, both domestic and foreign. Domestic
resources include national savings by firms and households, which need to be substantially increased. In addition, more effective tax collection is needed to increase public resources, as well as the rationalising of government expenditures. A significant proportion of their domestic savings is lost to African countries as a result of capital flight. This situation can only be reversed if African economies become attractive locations for residents to hold their wealth. Therefore, there is also an urgent need to create conditions conducive to private sector investments by both domestic and foreign investors. Furthermore, there are other resources that can be mobilised within Africa while, at the same time, requesting the developed countries to pledge their Treasury Bills to finance the Plan. In so doing, they would not directly commit their liquid assets. Finally, we suggest the establishment of Special Drawing Rights for Africa.
(ii) Debt Relief
146. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development seeks the extension of debt relief beyond its current levels (based on debt “sustainability”), which still require debt service payments amounting to a significant portion of the resource gap. The long- term objective of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development is to link debt relief with costed poverty reduction outcomes. In the interim, debt service ceilings should be fixed as a proportion of fiscal revenue, with different ceilings for international development assistance (IDA) and non-IDA countries. To secure the full commitment of concessional resources – debt relief plus ODA – that Africa requires, the leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will negotiate these arrangements with creditor governments. Countries would engage with existing debt relief mechanisms – the HIPC and the Paris Club – before seeking recourse through the New Partnership for Africa’s Development. The Debt Initiative will require agreed poverty reduction strategies, debt strategies and participation in the Economic Governance Initiative to ensure that countries are able to absorb the extra resources. In addition to seeking further debt relief through the interim debt strategy set out above, the leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will establish a forum in which African countries will share experience and mobilise for the improvement of debt relief strategies.
– The heads of state of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will secure an agreement, negotiated with the international community, to provide further debt relief for countries participating in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, based on the principles outlined above;
– The leadership of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will establish a forum in which African countries may share experiences and mobilise for the
improvement of debt relief strategies. They will exchange ideas that may end the process of reform and qualification in the HIPC process.
(iii) ODA Reforms
148. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development seeks increased ODA flows in the medium term, as well as reform of the ODA delivery system, to ensure that flows are more effectively utilised by recipient African countries. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development will establish a forum of African countries so as to develop a common African position on ODA reform, and to engage with the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD and other donors in developing a charter underpinning the development partnership. This charter will identify the Economic Governance Initiative as a prerequisite for enhancing the capacity of African countries to utilise increased ODA flows, and will propose a complementary, independent assessment mechanism for monitoring donor performance. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development will support a PRSP Learning Group to engage in the PRSP process, together with the IMF and the World Bank.
– Constitute an ODA forum for developing a common African position on ODA reform, as a counterpart to the OECD/DAC structure;
– Engage, through the ODA forum, with donor agencies to establish a charter for the
development partnership, which would embody the principles outlined above;
– Support efforts of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) to establish a PRSP Learning Group;
– Establish an independent mechanism for assessing donor and recipient country performance.
(iv) Private Capital Flows
150. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development seeks to increase private capital flows to Africa, as an essential component of a sustainable long-term approach to filling the resource gap.
151. – The first priority is to address investors’ perception of Africa as a “high-risk” continent, especially with regard to security of property rights, regulatory
frameworks and markets. Several key elements of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will help to lower these risks gradually, and include initiatives
relating to peace and security, political and economic governance, infrastructure and poverty reduction. Interim measures for risk mitigation will be put in place,
including credit guarantee schemes and strong regulatory and legislative frameworks.
– The next priority is the implementation of a PPP capacity-building programme through the African Development Bank and other regional development
institutions, to assist national and subnational governments in structuring and regulating transactions in the provision of infrastructural and social services.
– The third priority is to promote the deepening of financial markets within countries, as well as cross-border harmonisation and integration, via a Financial
Market Integration Task Force. Initially, this will focus on the legislative and regulatory environment for the financial system.
– Establish a task team to carry out audits of investment-related legislation and regulation, with a view to risk reduction and harmonisation within Africa;
– Carry out a needs assessment of, and feasibility study on, financial instruments to mitigate risks associated with doing business in Africa;
– Establish an initiative to enhance the capacity of countries to implement PPPs;
– Establish a Financial Market Integration Task Force that will speed up financial market integration through establishing an international standard legislative and
regulatory framework and creating a single African trading platform;
– Equally important, however, especially in the short to medium term, is the need for additional ODA and debt reduction. Additional ODA is required to enable least developed countries to achieve the IDGs, especially in the areas of primary education, health, and poverty eradication. Further debt reduction is also crucial.
The enhanced HIPC debt relief initiative still leaves many countries within its scope with very high debt burdens; hence the need to direct more resources
towards poverty reduction. In addition, some countries not included in the HIPC initiative also require debt relief to release resources for poverty reduction.
C2. THE MARKET ACCESS INITIATIVE
(i) Diversification of Production
153. African economies are vulnerable because of their dependence on primary production and resource-based sectors, and their narrow export bases. There is an urgent need to diversify production and the logical starting point is to harness Africa’s natural resource base. Value added in agro-processing and mineral beneficiation must be increased and a broader capital goods sector developed through a strategy of economic diversification based on intersectoral linkages. Private enterprise must be supported, both micro-enterprises in the informal sector and small and medium enterprises in the manufacturing sector, which are principal engines of growth and development. Governments should remove constraints on business activity and encourage the creative talents of African entrepreneurs.
– To improve the productivity of agriculture, with particular attention to small-scale and women farmers;
– To ensure food security for all people and increase the access of the poor to adequate food and nutrition;
– To promote measures against natural resource degradation and encourage production methods that are environmentally sustainable;
– To integrate the rural poor into the market economy and provide them with better access to export markets;
– To develop Africa into a nett exporter of agricultural products;
– To become a strategic player in the development of agricultural science and technology.
At the African level:
– Increase the security of water supply for agriculture by establishing small-scale irrigation facilities, improving local water management, and increasing the
exchange of information and technical know-how with the international community;
– Improve land tenure security under traditional and modern forms of tenure, and promote the necessary land reform;
– Foster regional, subregional, national and household food security through the development and management of increased production, transport, storage and
marketing of food crops, livestock and fisheries. Particular attention must also be given to the needs of the poor, as well as the establishment of early warning
systems to monitor droughts and crop production;
– Enhance agricultural credit and financing schemes, and improve access to credit by small-scale and women farmers;
– Reduce the heavy urban bias of public spending in Africa by transferring resources
from urban to rural activities.
At the international level:
– Develop new partnership schemes to address donor fatigue for individual, high- profile agricultural projects;
– Developing countries should assist Africa in carrying out and developing its research and development capabilities in agriculture;
– Promote access to international markets by improving the quality of African produce and agricultural products, particularly processed products, to meet the
standards required by those markets;
– Support African networking with external partners in the areas of agricultural technology and know-how, extension services and rural infrastructure;
– Support investment in research in the areas of high-yield crops and durable preservation and storage methods;
– Provide support for building national and regional capacity for multilateral trade negotiations, including food sanitation and other agricultural trade regulations.
– To improve the quality of mineral resource information;
– To create a regulatory framework that is conducive to the development of the mining sector;
– To establish best practices that will ensure efficient extraction of natural resources and minerals of high quality.
At the African level:
– Harmonise policies and regulations to ensure compliance with minimum levels of operational practices;
– Harmonise commitments to reduce the perceived investment risk in Africa;
– Harmonise information sources on business opportunities for investments;
– Enhance collaboration with a view to knowledge-sharing and value addition to natural resources;
– Enforce principles of value addition (beneficiation) for investments in the African mining sector;
– Establish an African School of Mining System for the development and production of education, skills and training at all levels. This could be achieved through
collaboration among existing schools.
– To increase the production and improve the competitiveness and diversification of the domestic private sector, especially in the agro-industrial, mining and manufacturing subsectors, with potential for exports and employment creation;
– To establish organisations on national standards in African countries;
– To harmonise the technical regulatory frameworks of African countries.
At the African level:
– Develop new industries or upgrade existing ones, where African countries have comparative advantages, including agro-based industries, energy and mineral
– Acquire membership of the relevant international standards organisations. Active
membership would give Africa a stronger voice in these bodies, and would enable
African industry to participate meaningfully in the development of international
standards. Membership would also result in the transfer copyright of international
standards to the national associations;
– Establish national measurement institutions to ensure harmonisation with the international metrology system. Such activities will always remain the
responsibility of government;
– Ensure that testing laboratories and certification organisations are set up to support the relevant national technical regulations. Where they do not exist, such
organisations should be established as soon as possible;
– Establish an accreditation infrastructure, such as the International Standards Organisation (ISO) system, which is acceptable internationally. Such an
accreditation infrastructure can be nationally based where the industry is strong enough to maintain it, otherwise regional structures should be contemplated.
Appropriate funding to ensure membership of international structures such as the International Accreditation Forum (IAF) and the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) should be made available;
– Pursue mutual recognition of test and certification results with Africa’s major trading partners. Generally, this will only be possible if the framework for
standards, technical regulations, measurement, tractability and accreditation are in place and can be shown to meet international requirements.
At the international level:
– Facilitate partnership through the development of mechanisms, such as joint
business councils, for information-sharing between non-African and African firms
and for working towards the establishment of joint ventures and subcontracting arrangements;
– Assist in strengthening African training institutions for industrial development, particularly through the promotion of networking with international partners;
– Promote the transfer of new and appropriate technologies to African countries;
– Develop and accept a best-practice framework for technical regulations that meet both the requirements of the World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and the needs of Africa. The technical regulation frameworks of the developed countries may be too complex for many
– Establish standards bureaux, which would provide the industry and government with the necessary information on international, regional and national standards,
thereby facilitating market access. These centres should be linked to the relevant international, regional and national standards information centres so that the latter
can act as the national WTO/TBT enquiry points;
– Ensure the development of appropriate regional and national standards through the establishment of appropriate technical committee structures representing the
stakeholders of the countries, as well as managing such committees in line with ISO/IEC directives and WTO/TBT requirements.
– To identify key “anchor” projects at the national and subregional levels, which will generate significant spin-offs and assist in promoting interregional economic
– To develop a regional marketing strategy;
– To develop research capacity in tourism;
– To promote partnerships such as those formed via subregional bodies. Examples include the Regional Tourism Organisation of Southern Africa (RETOSA), the
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the SADC.
At the African level:
– Forge cooperative partnerships to capture the benefits of shared knowledge, as well as providing a base for other countries for entering into tourist-related activities;
– Provide the African people with the capacity to be actively involved in sustainable tourism projects at the community level;
– Prioritise consumer safety and security issues;
– Market African tourism products, especially in adventure tourism, ecotourism and cultural tourism;
– Increase regional coordination of tourism initiatives in Africa for the expansion and increased diversity of products;
– Maximise the benefits from the strong interregional demand for tourism activities, by developing specialised consumer-targeted marketing campaigns.
162. Services can constitute very important activities for African countries, in particular those that are well equipped in the field of ICTs (teleservices).
(vii) Promoting the Private Sector
– To ensure a sound and conducive environment for private sector activities, with particular emphasis on domestic entrepreneurs;
– To promote foreign direct investment and trade, with special emphasis on exports;
– To develop micro-, small and medium enterprises, including the informal sector.
At the African level:
– Undertake measures for enhancing the entrepreneurial, managerial and technical capacities of the private sector by supporting technology acquisition, production
improvements, and training and skills development;
– Strengthen chambers of commerce, trade and professional associations and their regional networks;
– Organise dialogue between the government and the private sector to develop a shared vision of economic development strategy and remove constraints on private sector development;
– Strengthen and encourage the growth of micro-, small and medium-scale industries
through appropriate technical support from service institutions and civil society,
and improve access to capital by strengthening microfinancing schemes, with
particular attention to women entrepreneurs.
At the international level:
– Promote entrepreneurial development programmes for training managers of African firms;
– Provide technical assistance for developing an appropriate regulatory environment, promoting small, medium and micro-enterprises and establishing microfinancing schemes for the African private sector.
(viii) Promoting African Exports
– To improve procedures for customs and drawback/rebate schemes;
– To tackle trade barriers in international trade through the improvement of standards;
– To increase intra-regional trade through promoting cross-border interaction among African firms;
– To counter Africa’s negative image through conflict resolution and marketing;
– To deal with shortages of short-term skills through appropriate incentives and training at firm level.
At the African level:
– Promote intra-African trade with the aim of sourcing within Africa imports formerly sourced from other parts of the world;
– Create marketing mechanisms and institutions to develop marketing strategies for African products;
– Publicise African exporting and importing companies and their products through
– Reduce the cost of transactions and operations;
– Promote and improve regional trade agreements, foster interregional trade liberalisation and harmonise rules of origin, tariffs and product standards;
– Reduce export taxes.
At the international level:
– Negotiate measures and agreements to facilitate access to the world market by African products;
– Encourage foreign direct investment;
– Assist in capacity-building in the private sector, as well as strengthening country and subregional capacity in trade negotiations, implementing the rules and
regulations of the WTO, and identifying and exploiting new trading opportunities that emerge from the evolving multilateral trading system;
– The African heads of state must ensure active participation in the world trading system, which has been managed under the auspices of the WTO since 1995. If a new round of multilateral trade negotiations is started, it must recognise and provide for the African continent’s special concerns, needs and interests in future
167. Participation in the world trading system must enhance:
– Open, predictable and geographically diversified market access for exports from Africa;
– The provision of a forum in which developing countries can collectively call for structural adjustment by developed countries in those industries in which the
natural competitive advantage now lies with the developing world;
– Transparency and predictability as preconditions for increased investment, in return for boosting supply capacity and enhancing the gains from existing market
– Technical assistance and support to enhance the institutional capacity of African
states to use the WTO and to engage in multilateral trade negotiations.
168. In addition to broad-based support for the WTO, African heads of state must identify strategic areas of intervention and, together with the international community, strengthen the contribution of trade to the continent’s recovery. The strategic areas include:
– Identifying key areas in export production in which supply-side impediments exist;
– Diversifying production and exports, especially in existing and potential areas of competitive advantage, and bearing in mind the need to move towards higher
– Assessing the scope for further liberalisation in manufacturing, given the concentration of access in low value-added sectors and its restrictiveness in high
value-added activities with the greatest economic and growth potential;
– Renewed political action by African countries to intensify and deepen the various integration initiatives on the continent. To this end, consideration needs to be given to:
• A discretionary preferential trade system for intra-African trade;
• The alignment of domestic and regional trade and industrial policy objectives, thereby increasing the potential for intra-regional trade critical to the sustainability of regional economic arrangements.
169. Heads of state must act to:
– Secure and stabilise preferential treatment by key developed country partners, e.g. the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP), the Cotonou Agreement, the
“Everything But Arms” (EBA) initiative and the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA);
– Ensure that further multilateral liberalisation does not erode the preferential gains of these arrangements;
– Identify and address deficiencies in their design and application.
(ix) Removal of Non-tariff Barriers
170. African leaders believe that improved access to the markets of industrialised countries for products in which Africa has a comparative advantage is crucial. Although there have been significant improvements in terms of lowered tariffs in recent years, there remain significant exceptions on tariffs while non-tariff barriers also constitute major impediments. Progress on this issue would greatly enhance the economic growth and diversification of African production and exports. Dependence on ODA would decline and infrastructure projects would become more viable as a result of increased economic activity.
VI. A NEW GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP
171. Africa recognises the centuries-old historical injustice and the need to correct it. The central injunction of the new partnership is, however, for combined efforts to improve the quality of life of Africa’s people as rapidly as possible. In this, there are shared responsibilities and mutual benefits for Africa and its partners.
172. The global technological revolution needs an expanding base of resources, a widening sphere of markets, new frontiers of scientific endeavour, the collective capacity of human wisdom, and a well-managed ecological system. We are aware that much of Africa’s mineral and other material resources are critical inputs into production processes in developed countries.
173. In addition to its indispensable resource base, Africa offers a vast and growing market for producers worldwide. A developing Africa, with increased numbers of employed and skilled workers and a burgeoning middle class, would constitute an expanding market for the world’s manufactured products, intermediate goods and services.
174. At the same time, Africa provides a great opportunity for investment. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development creates opportunities for joint international efforts in the development of infrastructure, especially in ICT and transportation.
175. Africa also provides prospects for creative partnerships between the public and private sectors in beneficiation, agro-industries, tourism, human resource
development and in addressing the challenges of urban renewal and rural development.
176. Furthermore, Africa’s biodiversity – including its rich flora and fauna and the rainforests – is an important global resource in combating the environmental
degradation posed by the depletion of the ozone layer and climate change, as well as the pollution of air and water by industrial emissions and toxic effluents.
177. The expansion of educational and other opportunities in Africa would enhance the continent’s contribution to world science, technology and culture, to the benefit of all humankind. After all, modern science recognises Africa as the cradle of humanity. Fossils, artefacts, artistic works and versions of ancient human settlements are to be found throughout Africa, providing material evidence of the emergence of Homo sapiens and the progression of humankind.
178. As part of the process of reconstructing the identity and self-confidence of the peoples of Africa, it is necessary that this be understood and valued by Africans themselves.
In the same vein, Africa’s status as the birthplace of humanity should be cherished by
the whole world as the origin of all its peoples.
179. Africa’s rich cultural legacy is reflected in its artefacts of the past, its literature, philosophies, art and music. These should serve both as a means of consolidating the pride of Africans in their own humanity and of confirming the common humanity of the peoples of the world.
180. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development has, as one of its foundations, the expansion of democratic frontiers and the deepening of the culture of human rights. A democratic Africa will become one of the pillars of world democracy, human rights and tolerance. The resources of the world currently dedicated to resolving civil and interstate conflict could therefore be freed for more rewarding endeavours.
181. The converse of such an initiative, that is the collapse of more African states, poses a threat not only to Africans, but also to global peace and security. For industrialised countries, development in Africa will reduce the levels of global social exclusion and mitigate a major potential source of global social instability.
182. Africa is committed to the development and strengthening of South-South partnerships.
Establishing a New Relationship with Industrialised Countries and Multilateral Organisations
183. A critical dimension of Africans taking responsibility for the continent’s destiny is the need to negotiate a new relationship with their development partners. The manner in which development assistance is delivered in itself creates serious problems for developing countries. The need to negotiate with, and account separately to, donors supporting the same sector or programme is both cumbersome and inefficient. Also, the tying of development assistance generates further inefficiencies. The appeal is for a new relationship that takes the country programmes as a point of departure. The new relationship should set out mutually agreed performance targets and standards for both donor and recipient. Many cases clearly show that the failure of projects is not caused only by the poor performance of recipients, but also by bad advice given by donors.
184. The various partnerships between Africa and the industrialised countries on the one hand, and multilateral institutions on the other, will be maintained. The partnerships in question include, among others, the UN’s New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s; the Africa-Europe Summit’s Cairo Plan of Action; the World Bank-led Strategic Partnership with Africa; the IMF-led PRSPs; the Japan-led Tokyo Agenda for Action; the AGOA of the United States; and the ECA-led Global Compact with Africa. The objective is to rationalise these partnerships and to ensure that real benefits flow from them.
185. The African leaders envisage the following responsibilities and obligations of the developed countries and multilateral institutions:
– To materially support mechanisms for and processes of conflict prevention, management and resolution in Africa, as well as peacekeeping initiatives;
– To accelerate debt reduction for heavily indebted African countries, in conjunction with more effective poverty reduction programmes, of which the Strategic
Partnership with Africa and the PRSP initiatives are an important starting point;
– To improve debt relief strategies for middle-income countries;
– To reverse the decline in ODA flows to Africa and to meet the target level of ODA flows equivalent to 0.7 per cent of each developed country’s gross national product (GNP) within an agreed period. Increased aid flows will be used to complement funds released by debt reduction for accelerating the fight against poverty;
– To translate into concrete commitments the international strategies adopted in the fields of education and health;
– To facilitate the development of a partnership between countries, international pharmaceutical corporations and civil society organisations to urgently secure
access to existing drugs for Africans suffering from infectious diseases;
– To admit goods into markets of developed countries through bilateral initiatives, and to negotiate more equitable terms of trade for African countries within the
WTO multilateral framework;
– To work with African leaders to encourage investment in Africa by the private sector in developed countries, including the establishment of insurance schemes
and financial instruments that will help lower risk premiums on investments in Africa;
– To raise consumer protection standards for exports from developed countries to developing countries, as applicable to the domestic markets in developed countries;
– To ensure that the World Bank and other multilateral development finance
institutions participate as investors in the key economic infrastructure projects, in
order to facilitate and secure private sector participation;
– To provide technical support to accelerate the implementation of the programme of action, including strengthening Africa’s capacity for planning and development management, financial and infrastructure regulation, accounting and auditing, and the development, construction and management of infrastructure;
– To support governance reforms of multilateral financial institutions to better cater for the needs and concerns of countries in Africa;
– To set up coordinated mechanisms for combating corruption effectively, as well as committing themselves to the return of monies (proceeds) of such practices to
VII. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT
186. Recognising the need to sequence and prioritise, the initiating Presidents propose that these programmes be fast-tracked, in collaboration with development partners:
– Communicable diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis;
– Information and communications technology;
– Debt reduction;
– Market access.
187. Work has already been done on all these programmes through a variety of international partnerships and institutions. However, Africa’s participation and
leadership need to be strengthened for better delivery. We believe that addressing these issues could fast-track the renewal of the continent. (Detailed proposals on each programme are available as annexes.)
188. Much as the promoters of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development appreciate the dangers of a project approach to development, they are proposing a number of projects that are crucial to integrated regional development, as conceived by the New Partnership for Africa’s Development. Not only will these projects strengthen country and regional development programmes, but they will also go a long way in kick- starting the regeneration of the continent.
189. The projects presented below are for illustrative purposes only. A detailed list of projects can be found on the web site of the New Partnership for Africa’s
190. Expand the ambit and operation of the integrated action plan for land and water management for Africa. The project addresses the maintenance and upgrading of Africa’s fragile agricultural natural resources base. Many African governments are already implementing these initiatives as part of this programme. Partners include the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the FAO and other bilateral donor agencies.
191. Strengthen and refocus the capacity of Africa’s agricultural research and extension
systems. The project addresses the issue of upgrading the physical and institutional
infrastructure that supports Africa’s agriculture. Technological innovation and
technology diffusion hold enormous potential for accelerating agricultural output and
productivity, but the continent lacks the research capacity necessary for major
breakthroughs. Major players include the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa
(FARA), the World Bank, the FAO and the Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
(ii) Promotion of the Private Sector
192. International experience suggests that one of the best practices in promoting enterprises in highly innovative areas is through the establishment of business
incubators. This project will formulate required guidelines and policies for the establishment of such incubators at the national level, drawing on international
experience and established best practice, tailored to African needs and conditions.
(iii) Infrastructure and Regional Integration
193. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development process has identified many energy, transport, telecommunications and water projects that are crucial to Africa’s integrated development. The projects are at various stages of development and require funding. The next step is to accelerate their continued development in collaboration with the African Development Bank, the World Bank and other multilateral institutions.
194. The view of the initiating Presidents is that, unless the issue of infrastructure development is addressed on a planned basis – that is, linked to regional integrated development – the renewal process of the continent will not take off. Therefore, the international community is urged to support Africa in accelerating the development of infrastructure. Detailed infrastructure projects can be found on the web site of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (www.mapstrategy.com).
195. As part of assessing the required action in the priority sectors, a needs assessment will be undertaken, progressing from the national level to the subregional and regional levels. The aim is to assess the needs in the five priority sectors in terms of structures and staff.
196. The assessment of subregional sectoral needs will start from the national needs
assessment. It is proposed that the experts and ministers in each subsector meet in one
of the subregional capitals. For each sector, national data would have been aggregated
and used to elaborate a subregional sectoral plan. Once subregional sectoral needs
have been assessed in the five sectors, they can be aggregated to formulate an overall
197. It should be stressed that subregional sectoral needs are not to be simply added up – the starting point is a subregional perspective leading to at least two new elements:
– Specific needs of the subregion perceived as a single space for all states in the subregion. For instance, roads and railroads will not be conceived from a national
perspective but from a subregional one;
– Needs that should be rationalised on a subregional basis. For instance, universities should be distributed according to a subregional territorial rationale;
– Finally, the continent’s needs will be assessed in the five sectors considered priority sectors in the light of the global subregional plans. The details can be
found on the web site of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (www.mapstrategy.com).
Management Mechanism of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development
198. The heads of state promoting the New Partnership for Africa’s Development will advise the AU on an appropriate mechanism for its implementation.
199. There will be a need for core technical support for the implementing mechanism in the areas of research and policy formulation.
Heads of State Implementation Committee
200. A Heads of State Implementation Committee composed of the five heads of state, promoters of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development and ten others (two from each region) will be appointed for the implementation.
201. The functions of the Implementation Committee will consist of:
– Identifying strategic issues that need to be researched, planned and managed at the continental level;
– Setting up mechanisms for reviewing progress in the achievement of mutually
agreed targets and compliance with mutually agreed standards;
– Reviewing progress in the implementation of past decisions and taking appropriate steps to address problems and delays.
202. The objective of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development is to consolidate democracy and sound economic management on the continent. Through the
Programme, African leaders are making a commitment to the African people and the world to work together in rebuilding the continent. It is a pledge to promote peace and stability, democracy, sound economic management and people-centred development, and to hold each other accountable in terms of the agreements outlined in the Programme.
203. In proposing the partnership, Africa recognises that it holds the key to its own development. We affirm that the New Partnership for Africa’s Development offers an historic opportunity for the developed countries of the world to enter into a genuine partnership with Africa, based on mutual interest, shared commitments and binding agreements.
204. The adoption of a development strategy as set out in the broad approach outlined above, together with a detailed programme of action, will mark the beginning of a new phase in the partnership and cooperation between Africa and the developed world.
205. In fulfilling its promise, this agenda must give hope to the emaciated African child that the 21st century is indeed Africa’s century.