African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources



FULLY CONSCIOUS that soil, water, flora and faunal resources constitute a capital of vital importance to mankind;

CONFIRMING, as we accepted upon declaring our adherence to the Charter of the Organization of African Unity, .1 that we know that it is our duty "to harness the natural and human resources of our continent for the total advancement of our peoples in spheres of human endeavour";

FULLY CONSCIOUS of the ever growing importance of natural resources from an economic, nutritional, scientific, educational ,cultural and aesthetic point of view;

CONSCIOUS of the dangers which threaten some of these irreplaceable assets;

ACCEPTING that the utilization of the natural resources must aim at satisfying the needs of man according to the carrying capacity of the environment

DESIROUS of undertaking individual and joint action for the conservation , utilization and development of these assets by establishing and maintaining their rational utilization for the present and future welfare of mankind;

CONVINCED that one. of the most appropriate means of achieving this end is to bring into force a convention;







The contracting States shall undertake to adopt the measures necessary to ensure conservation, utilization and development of soil water, flora and faunal resources in accordance with scientific principles and with due regard to the best interests of the people#



For the purposes of the present Convention, the meaning of the following expressions shall be as defined below:

1) "Natural Resources" means renewable resources, that is soil water, flora and fauna

2) "Specimen" means an individual example of a species of wild animal or wild plant or part of a wild plant*

3) "Trophy'* means any dead animal specimen or part thereof whether included in a manufactured or processed object or otherwise dealt with, unless it has lost its original identity; also nests, eggs and eggshells.

4) "Conservation area" means any protected natural resource area, whether it be a strict natural reserve, a national park or a special reserve;

a) "Strict nature reserve" means an area:

1) under State control and the boundaries of which may not be altered nor any portion alienated except by the competent legislative authority,

2) throughout which any form of hunting or fishing, any undertaking connected with forestry, agriculture or mining, any grazing, any excavation or prospecting, drilling, levelling of the ground or construction, any work tending to alter the configuration of the soil or the character of the vegetation any water pollution and generally, any act likely to harm or disturb the fauna or flora, including introduction of zoological or botanical species, whether indigenous or imported, wild or domesticated, are strictly forbidden,

3) where it shall be forbidden to reside, enter, traverse or camp, and where it shall be forbidden to fly over at low altitude, without a special written permit from the competent authority, and in which scientific investigations (including removal of animals and plants in order to maintain an ecosystem ) may only be undertaken by permission of the competent authority; b) "national park!' means an area:

1) under State control and the boundaries of which may not be altered or any portion alienated except by the competent legislative authority,

2) exclusively set aside for the propagation, protection, conservation and management of vegetation and wild animals as well as for the protection of sites, landscapes or geological formations of particular scientific or aesthetic value, for the benefit and enjoyment of the general public, and

3) in which the killing, hunting and capture of animals and ,the destruction or collection of plants are prohibited except for scientific and management purposes and on the condition that such measures are taken under the direction or control of the competent authority;

4) covering any aquatic environment to which all of the provisions of section

(b) (1-3) above are applicable. The activities prohibited in strict nature reserve under the provisions of section

(a) (2) of paragraph (4) of this article are equally prohibited in national parks except in so far as they are necessary to enable the park authorities to implement the provisions of section (2) of this paragraph, by applying, for example, appropriate management practices, and to enable the public to visit these parks; however, sport fishing may be practised with the authorization and under the control of the competent authority; Page 4

c) "special reserve" means other protected areas such as:

1, "game reserve" which shall denote an area a) set aside for the conservation, management and propagation of wild animal life and the protection and management of its habitat,

b) within which the hunting, killing or capture of fauna shall be prohibited except by or under the direction or control of the reserve authorities,

c) where settlement and other human activities shall be controlled or prohibited;

2) "partial reserve" or '^,sanctuary" which shall denote an area

a) set aside to protect characteristic wildlife and especially bird communities, or to protect particularly threatened animal or plant species and especially those listed in the Annex to this Convention, together with the biotopes essential for their survival,

b) in which all other interests and activities shall be subordinated to this end;

3) '*soil" "water" or "forest" reserve shall denote areas set aside to protect such resources.



The contracting States shall take effective measures for conservation and improvement of the soil and shall ,in particular combat erosion and misuse of the soil. To this end: a) they shall establish land use plans based on scientific investigations (ecological, pedological, economic, and sociological) and in particular-,, classification of land use capability;

b) they shall, when implementing agricultural practices and agrarian reforms,

1) improve soil conservation and introduce improved farming methods, which ensure long-term productivity of the land,

2) control erosion caused by various forms of land use which may lead to loss of vegetation cover.



1.The contracting States shall establish policies for conservation, utilization and development of underground and surface water, and shall endeavour to guarantee for their populations a sufficient and continuous supply of suitable water, taking appropriate measures with due regard to 1) the study of water cycles and the investigation of each catchment area,

2) the co-ordination and planning of water resources development projects,

3) the administration and control of all water utilization,

4) prevention and control of water pollution. 2. Where surface or underground water resources are shared by two or more of the contracting States, the latter shall act in consultation, and if the need arises to set up inter-state Commissions to ;study and resolve problems arising from the joint use of these resources, and for the joint development and conservation thereof.

Article VI - FLORI


1. The contracting States shall take all necessary measures for the protection of flora and to ensnare its best utilization and development To this end the Contracting States shall:

a) adopt scientifically-based conservation, utilization and management plans of forests and rangeland, taking into account the social and economic needs of the States concerned, the importance of the vegetation cover for the maintenance of the water balance of an area, the productivity of soils and the habitat requirements of the fauna;

b) observe section (a) above by paying particular attention to controlling bush fires,: forest exploitation, land clearing for cultivation, and overgrazing by domestic and wild animals;

c) set aside areas for forest reserves and carry out forestation programmes where necessary;

d) limitation of forest grazing to season and intensities that will not prevent forest regeneration; and

e) establish botanical gardens to perpetuate plant species of particular interest.

2. The Contracting States also shall undertake the conservation of plant species or communities, which are threatened and/or of special scientific or aesthetic value by ensuring that they are included in conservation areas.



1. The Contracting States shall ensure conservation, wise use and development of faunal resources and their environment, within the framework of land use planning and of economic and social developments Management shall be carried out in accordance with plans, based on scientific principles, and to that end the Contracting States shall:

a) manage wildlife populations inside designated areas according to the objectives of such areas and also manage exploitable wildlife populations outside such areas for an optimum sustained yield, compatible with and complementary to other land uses; and

b) manage, aquatic environments, whether in fresh, brackish or coastal.. water, with a view to minimise deleterious effects of any water and land use practice which might adversely affect aquatic habitats.

2. The Contracting States shall adopt adequate legislation on hunting, capture and fishing, under which: a) the issue of permits is properly regulated;

b) unauthorized methods are prohibited.,

c) the following methods of hunting, capture and fishing are prohibited:

1) any method liable to cause a mass destruction of wild animals,

2) the use of drugs, poisons, poisoned weapons or poisoned baits,

3) the use of explosives;

4) the following methods of hunting and capture are particularly prohibited:

1. the use of mechanically propelled vehicles;

2. the use of fire;

3. the use of fire arms capable of firing more than one round at each pull of the trigger;

4. hunting or capture at night;

5. the use of missiles containing detonators;

d) the following methods of hunting or capture are he far as possible prohibited: the use of nets and stockades,

2. the use of concealed traps, pits, snares, set gun traps, deadfalls, and hunting room a blind or hide;

e) with a view to as rational use as possible of game meat the abandonment by hunters of carcasses of animals, which represent a food resource is prohibited. Capture of animals with the aid of drugs or mechanically propelled vehicles, or hunting or capture by night if carried out by, or under the control of, the competent authority shall nevertheless be exempted from the prohibitions under (c) above



1. The contracting States recognize that it is important and urgent to accord a special protection to those animal and plant species that are threatened with extinction, or which may become so, and to the habitat necessary to their survival. Where such a species is represented only in the territory of one Contracting State, that State has a particular responsibility for its protection. These species which are, or may be listed, according to the degree of protection that shall be given to them are placed in Class A or B of the Annex to this Convention, and shall be protected by Contracting States as follows:

1) species in Class A shall be totally protected throughout the entire territory of the Contracting States; the hunting, killing capture or collection of specimens shall be permitted only on the authorization in each case of the highest competent authority and only if required in the national interest or for scientific purposes; and

2) species in Class B shall be totally protected, but may be hunted, killed, captured or collected under special authorization granted by the competent authority.

2. The competent authority of each Contracting State shall examine the necessity of applying the provisions of this article to species wit listed in the annex, in order to conserve the indigenous flora and fauna of their respective countries. Such additional species shall be placed in Class A or B by the State concerned, according to its specific requirements*



1.In the case of animal species to which Article VIII does not apply the Contracting States shall:

a) regulate trade in and transport of specimens and trophies;

b) control the application of these regulations in such a way as to prevent trade in specimens and trophies which have been illegally captured or killed or obtained.

2. In the case of plant and animal species to which Article VIII paragraph (1) applies, the Contracting a) take all measures similar to those in paragraph (1)

b) make the export of such specimens and trophies subject to an authorization: 1. additional to that required for their capture, killing or collection by Article VIII,

2. which indicates their destination,

3. which shall not be given unless the specimens or trophies have been obtained legally,

4. which shall be examined prior to exportation;

5. which shall be on a standard form, as may be arranged under Article XVI;

c) make the import and transit of such specimens and trophies subject to the presentation of the authorization required under section (b) above, with due provision for the confiscation of specimens trophies exported illegally, without prejudice to the application of other penalties



1. The Contracting States shall maintain and extend where appropriate, within their territory and where applicable in their territorial waters, the Conservation areas existing at the time of entry into force of the present convention and preferably within the framework of land use planning programmes, assess the necessity of establishing additional conservation areas in order to: 1. protect those ecosystems which are most representative of and particularly those 'Which are 'in any respect peculiar to their territories;

2. ensure conservation of all species and more particularly of those listed or may be listed in the annex to this convention;

2. The Contracting States shall establish where necessary, around the borders of conservation areas, zones within which the competent authorities shall control activities detrimental. to the protected natural resources.



The Contracting States shall take all necessary legislative measures to reconcile customary rights with the provisions of this convention.



The Contracting States shall encourage and promote research in conservation, utilization and management of natural resources and shall pay particular attention to ecological and sociological factors

ARTICLE XIII - Conservation Education


1. a)

The Contracting States shall ensure that their peoples appreciate their close dependence on natural resources and that they understand the need, and rules for, the rational utilization of these resources.

b) for this purpose they shall ensure that the principles indicated in paragraph (1) 1. are included in educational programmes at all levels,

2. form the object of information campaigns capable of acquainting the public with, and winning it over to, the idea of conservation

2. In order to put into effect paragraph (1) above, the Contracting States shall make maximum use of the educational value of conservation areas.



1. The Contracting States shall ensure that conservation and management of natural resources arc., treated as an integral part of national and/or regional development plans.

2. In the formulation of all development plans, full consideration shall be given to ecological, as well as to economic and social factors.



Each Contracting State shall establish, if it has not already done so, a single agency empowered to deal with all matters covered by this Convention, but, where this is not possible a co-ordinating machinery shall be established for this purpose.



1. The Contracting States shall co-operate: a. whenever such cooperation is necessary to give effect to the provisions of this convention, and b. whenever any national measure is likely to affect the natural resources of any other State.

2. The Contracting States shall supply the Organization of African Unity with: a. the text of laws decrees, regulations and instructions in force in their territories, which are intended, to ensure the implementation of this Convention, b. reports on the results achieved, in applying the provisions of this Convention, and c. all the information necessary for the complete documentation of matters dealt with by this Convention if requested.

3. If so requested by Contracting States, the Organization of African Unity shall organize any meeting which may be necessary to dispose of any matters covered by this Convention Requests for such meetings must be made by at least three of the Contracting States and be approved by two thirds of the States which it is proposed should participate in such meetings.

4. Any expenditure arising from this Convention, which devolves upon the Organization of African Unity shall be, included in its regular budget, unless shared by the Contracting States or otherwise defrayed,



1. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the responsibilities concerning: 1. the paramount interest of the States

2. "force majeure",

3. defence of human life

2. The provisions of this Convention shall not prevent Contracting States:

1. in time of famine

2. for the protection of public health,

3. in defence of property, to enact measures contrary to the provisions of the. Convention, provided their application is precisely defined in respect of aim, time and place.



Any dispute between the Contracting States relating to the interpretation or application of this Convention which cannot be settled by negotiation, the request of any party be submitted to the Commission of Mediation, shall at -

1. Conciliation and Arbitration of the Organization of African Unity*



1. This Convention shall be open for signature immediately after being approved by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity.

2. This Convention shall be ratified by each of the, Contracting States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Administrative Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity.



1 . At the time of signature, ratification or accession, any, State may declare its acceptance of this Convention in part only, provided that such reservation may not apply to the provisions of Articles IIIXI.

2. Reservations made in conformity with the preceding paragraph shall be deposited together with the instruments of ratification or accession#

3. Any Contracting State which has formulated a reservation in conformity with the preceding paragraph may at any time withdraw it by notifying the Administrative Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity



1. This Convention shall come into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the fourth h instrument of ratification accession with the Administrative Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity, who shall inform participating States accordingly.

2. In the case of a State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the depositing of the fourth instrument of ratification or accession , the Convention shall come into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

3. The London Convention of 1933 or any other Convention on the, conservation of flora and fauna in their natural state shall cease to have effect in States in which this Convention has come into force.



1. After the date of approval specified in Article XIX paragraph (1) , this Convention shall be open to accession by any independent and sovereign 1 African State.

2. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Administrative Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity.



Any Contracting State may denounce this Convention by notification in writing addressed to the Administrative Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity.

2. Such denunciation shall take effect, for such a State, one year after the date of receipt of its notification by the Administrative Secretary­ General of the Organization of African Unity.

3. No denunciation shall, however, be made before the expiry of a period of five years from the date at which for the State concerned this Convention comes into force.



1. After the expiry of a period of five years from the date of entryforce of this Convention, any Contracting State may at any time make a request for the revision of part or the whole of this Convention by notification in writing addressed to the Administrative Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity.

2. In the event of such a request the appropriate organ of the Organization of African Unity shall deal with the matter in accordance with the provision of sections 3 and 4 of Article M of this Convention. At the request of one or more Contracting States and not with­ the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article, the annex to this Convention may be revised or add ed to by the appropriate organ of the Organization of African Unity. (ii) Such revision or addition shall come into force three months after the approval by the appropriate organ of the Organization of African Unity,



The original of this Convention of which both the English and the French texts are authentic, shall be deposited with the Administrative Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity.








Leinuroidae - All Malagasy lemuroids

Macaca sylvana - Barbary ape

Therapithecus gelada - Gelada baboon

Cercocebus galeritus galeritus - Tana River mangabey
Cercopithecus diana - Diana monkey

Colobus badius kirkii - Zanzibar red colobus
Colobus badius rufomitratus Taria - River red colobus
Colobus badius gordonorum Uhehe - red colobus
Colobus verus - Green colobus

Pantroglodytes - Chimpanzee
Panpaniscus - chimpanzee

Gorilla gorilla - Gorilla

Rodentia - Rodentia

Epixerus spp. - African palm squirrels



Canis simensis - Simenian jackal

Osbornictis piscivora - Water civet

Fossa fossa - Malagasy civet

Eupleres spp. - Falanouc

Felis nigripes - Blackfooted cat

Felis aurata - African golden cat

Acinonyx jubatus - Cheetah

Pinnipedia - Pennipedia

Monachus monachus - Mediterranean monk seal

Sirenia - Sirenia

Dugong LUEon - Dugong

Trichechus senegalensis - Jest African manatee

Perissodactyla - Perissodactyla

Equus asinus - Wild ass

Ecrugs zebra - Cape mountain, zebra

Ceratotherium simum - Square-lipped rhinoceros

Artiodactyla - Artiodactyla

Choeropsis liberiensis - Hippopotamus

Cervus elaphus barbarus - Barbary stag

Okapia johnstoni - Okapi

Laurotragus derbiannus derbianus - Western giant eland

Cephalophus jentinki - Jentink's duiker

Hippotragus niger variani - Giant sable antelope

Aleelaphus buselaphus tora - Tora Hartebeest

Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynoi,Sirayne's - hartebeest

rag,cLi,smoschatus moschatus - Zanzibar suni

Dorcatragus megalotis - Beira antelope

Gazelia dorcas neglecta - Algerian dorcas gazelle

Gazella dorcas massaesyla - Moroccan dorcas gazelle

Gazella gazella cuvieri - Cuvier's gazelle

Gazella leptocerus leptocerus - Slender-horned, gazelle

Gazella pelzelni - Pelseln's gazelle

Gazella spekei - Spokes gazelle.

Gazella damamhorr - Mhorr gazelle

Gazella dama lazonoi - Rio de Oro dama gazelle

Capra walie - Walia ibex

Aves - Birds


Pelecanidae - All pelicans

Ciconiidae, Scopidae et Ardeidae - All storks, hammerkops, ibises, spoonbills, herons, egrets and bitterns

Phoenicopteridae - All Flamingos

Sagittarius serpentarius - Secretary bird

Aegypius, Gyps, Pseudogyps, Torgos All vultures

Trigonoceps, Neophron et Necrosyrtes Lammergeyer - Crowned hawk

Gypaetus - barbatus

Stephanoaetus coronatus - falcon

Falco fasciinucha - White-headed guineafowl

Agelastes meleagrides - Congo peacock

Afropavo congensis - All cranes

Gruidae - All ground bornbills

Bucorvus spp. - White-necked rockfowl

Picarthartes oreas - Grey-necked rockfowl

Picarthartes gymnocephalus - Warsangli linnet Warsanglia johanni -

Reptilia - Reptiles Cheloniidae, DermochelLyidae - All marine turtles

Testudo gigantea - Giant tortoise

Testudo yniphora - Angulated tortoise

Testudo radiata - Testudo radiata

Macroscinous coctei - Cape Verde skink

Gecko uroplates - Leaf-tailed gecko

Casarea dussumieri - Plate Island boa

Folis loo - Lion

Pant hera pardus - Leopard

Tenrecidae - Madagascar Tenrecs (all species)

Fossa Cryptoprocta ferox - Foassa

Galidiinae - All Malagasy mongooses of the sub family


Tubul identata Oryeteropus afer - Aardvark

Proboscidea - Proboscidea

Loxodonta africana - Elephant P

erissodactyla - Perissodactyla

Ecruus zebra bartmannae - HartmannIs mountain zebra

Equus burchelli - Burchell's zebra

Equus grevyi - Grevy's zebra

Diceros bicornis - Black rhinoceros

Hylochoerus meinertzhageni - Artiodactyla

Hippopotamus amphibius - Giant forest hog

KyemoschuS aquaticus - Hippopotamus

Giraffa camel opardalis - Water chevrotain

Tragelaphus angasi - Giraffe

Tragelaphus buxtoni - Nyala

Tragelaphus spekei - Mountain nyala

Tragelaphus imberbis - Situtunga

Tragelaphus strepsiceros - Lesser kudu

Taurotragus oryx - Greater kudu

Taurotragus derbianus - Eland

Boocercus eurycorus - Giant eland

Syncerus caffer, - Bongo

Cephalophus adorsi - Buffalo

CGphaloRhus ogilbyi - Zanzibar duiker

Cephalophus silvicultor - Ogilbyts duiker

Cephalophus spadix - Yellow-baked duiker

Cephalophus zebra - Abbott's duiker

Kobus ellipsiprymnus - Banded duiker

Kobus defassa - Waterbuck

Kobus leche - Defassa waterbuck

Kobus megaceros - Lechwe

Adenota kob - Nile lechwe

Kob Redunca arundinum - Reedbuck

Redunca fulvorufula - Mountain reedbuck

Redunca equinus - Bohor reedbuck

Hipptrap, - Roan antelope

Hippotraniger - Sable antelope

Oryx Aazolla - Oryx

Oryx tao - Scimitar-horned oryx

Adax nasomaculatus - Addax

Damaliscus lunatus - Tsessobe (Sassaby)

Damaliscus korrigum - Topi

Danaliscus dorcas dorcas - Bontebok

Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi - Blesbok

Damaliscus hunteri - Hunterts hartebeest

Alcolaphus buselaphus - Hartebeest

Alcelaphus lichtensteini - Lichtenstein's hartebeest

Connochact es gnou - Black wildebeest

Connochaetes taurinus - Wildebeest

Oreotragus oreotragus - Klipspringer

Ourebia spp. - Oribis (All species)

Neotragus pygmaeus - Royal antelope

Neotragus batesi - Dwarf antelope I

vhdoqua kirki - Damara dikdik

Aepyceros melampus - Impala

Ammodorcas clarkei - Dibatag

Litodranius walleri - Gerenuk

Dorcas gazelle -

Gazella rufifrons -Korin gazelle

tilonura - Houglin's gazelle

Gazella Gazella dama - Dama gazelle

Gazella scemmerringi - Doemmering's gazelle

Capra ibex nubiana - Nubian ibex

Ammetragus lervia - Barbary sheep

(Ackudad) truthio camelus - Ostrich

1 Falconiformes et Strigifortnes - All birds of prey and all owls not in Otididae All bustards tidi



Bufo suporciliaris

Nectophrynoides occidentalis




Typhleotris Phreatichtkys,




Welwitschia bainesii .

Encephalartos laurentanus

Encephalartos septentrionalis







Manis gigantea

Ylanis temmincki

Manis tricuspis

Manis longicaudata



Proteles cristatus

llyaena brunnoa

Ryaena 4yaena barbara

Felis caracal

Felis serval


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