University of Minnesota

Conflict and Violence: A Working Bibliography with Special Reference to Indonesia
by Glenn Smith & Hélène Bouvier-Smith



Acciaioli, Greg. 2001. Grounds of Conflict, Idioms of Harmony: Custom, Religion and Nationalism in Violence Avoidance at the Lindu Plain, Central Sulawesi. Indonesia (October).

Aditjondro, George. 2000. Ninjas, Nanggalas, Monuments, and Mossad Manuals: An Anthropology of Indonesian State Terror in East Timor. In Jeffrey A. Sluka, ed. Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror. Pp. 1-32. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 

Aditjondro, George. 2001. Suharto's Colonial Adventure. Arena Magazine.

Aditjondro, George. 2001. Orang-orang Jakarta Di Balik Tragedi Maluku.

Andasputra, Nico & Stepanus Djuweng. 1997. Sisi Gelap Sejarah Kalimantan Barat. Liputan Media Massa Seputar Kerusuhan Dayak-Madura Tahun 1996/1997. Kumpulan Terbitan Media Massa Cetak. Pontianak: Institute Dayakology Research and Development.  

Anderson, Benedict, ed. 2001. Violence and the State in Suharto's Indonesia. Studies on Southeat Asia 30. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University.

Anderson, Myrdene, ed. 2004. Cultural Shaping of Violence. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press.

Andrianto, Tuhana Taufiq. 2000. Konflik Maluku. Yogyakarta: Gama Global Media.

Andrianto, Tuhana Taufiq. 2000. Aceh Bergolak: Dulu dan Kini. Yogyakarta: Gama Global Media.

Antlöv, Hans & Sven Cederroth, eds. 1994. Leadership on Java: Gentle Hints and Authoritarian Rule. Richmond: Curzon Press.

Anwar, Dewi Fortuna, Hélène Bouvier, Glenn Smith and Roger Tol, eds. 2005. Violent Internal Conflicts in Asia Pacific: Histories, Political Economies and Policies. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor, MOST-LIPI, LASEMA-CNRS, and KITLV. (versi Bahasa Indonesia: Konflik Kekerasan Internal: Tinjauan Sejarah, Ekonomi-Politik, dan Kebijakan.)

Appadurai, A. 1998. Dead Certainty: Ethnic Violence in the Era of Globalization. Public Culture 10(2): 225-247.

Aragon , Lorraine. 2001. Communal Violence in Poso, Central Sulawesi: Where People Eat Fish and Fish Eat People. Indonesia 72(October):45-80.

Aragon, Lorraine V. 2002. Waiting for Peace in Poso. Why Has This Muslim-Christian Conflict Continued for Three Years? Inside Indonesia 70(April-June).

Araya, Tadesse. 2003. Stereotypes: Suppression, Forgetting, and False Memory. Uppsala, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

Aspen Institute, The. 1995. Managing Conflict in the Post-Cold War World: The Role of Intervention. Proceedings of the Aspen Institute Conference on International Peace and Security, August 2-6. Aspen, CO: The Aspen Institute.

Auvinen, Juha & E. Wayne Nafziger. 1999. The Sources of Humanitarian Emergencies. Journal of Conflict Resolution 43(3): 267-290.

Auvinen, Juha & E. Wayne Nafziger. 2000. Economic Causes: The Political Economy of War, Hunger, and Flight. In Juha Nafziger, Frances Stewart & Raimo Väyrynen, eds., The Origin of Humanitarian Emergencies: War and Displacement in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Avruch, Kevin. 1996. Conflict Resolution. Pp. 241-245 in David Levinson & Melvin Ember, eds., Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 1. New York: Henry Holt & Company.

Avruch, Kevin. 1998. Culture and Conflict Resolution. NY: United States Institute of Peace.

Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black & Joseph M. Scimecca, eds. 1998. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. NY: Praeger.

Aya, Rod. 1990. Rethinking Revolutions and Collective Violence: Studies on Concept, Theory, and Method. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.

Baker, Richard W., M. Hadi Soesastro, J. Kristiadi & Douglas E. Ramage, eds. 1999. Indonesia: The Challenge of Change. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 

Barash, David P. 1991. Introduction to Peace Studies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Barker, Joshua. 1998. State of Fear: Controlling the Criminal Contagion in Suharto's New Order. Indonesia 66:7-42.

Barlow, Hugh D. 1984. Introduction to Criminology. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Bhavnani, Ravi & David Backer. 2000. Localized Ethnic Conflict and Genocide: Accounting for Differences. Santa Fe Working Papers 7.

Bhavnani, Ravi & David Backer. 2000. Localized Ethnic Conflict and Genocide: Accounting for Differences in Rwanda and Burundi. Journal of Conflict Resolution 44(3):283-306.

Biro Pusat Statistik. 2001. Laporan Sosial Indonesia 2000. Sosial-Ekonomi Pengungsi di Penampungan. Katalog BPS: 4108. Jakarta: BPS.

Biro Pusat Statistik. 2001. Penduduk Indonesia. Hasil Sensus Penduduk Tahun 2000. Seri L2.2. Jakarta: BPS. [Includes data on ethnicity of certain populations per province]

Bloch, Maurice. 1997 [1992]. La violence du religieux. Paris: Odile Jacob.  

Blok, Anton. 1974. The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, 1860-1960: A Study of Violent Peasant Entrepreneurs. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Bohannan, Paul. 1957. Justice and Judgment Among the Tiv of Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press.

Bohannan, Paul, ed. 1967. Law and Warfare: Studies in the Anthropology of Conflict. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Boland, B.J. 1971. The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Bonta, Bruce D, ed. 1993. Peaceful Peoples: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Bourchier, David & John Legge, eds. 1994. Democracy in Indonesia: 1950s and 1990s. Clayton, Victoria: Monash University Center for Southeast Asian Studies.

Bourke, Joanna. 1999. An Intimate History of Killing. Face-to-face Killing in Twentieth-Century Warfare. London: Granta Books.  

Brass, Paul. 1997. Theft of an Idol: Text and Context in the Representation of Collective Violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Brata, Aloysius Gunadi. 2002. Konflik di Masa Krisis: Studi Empiris Determinasi Ketidakadilan Sosio-ekonomi. Manuscript.

Brickman, P. 1974. Social Conflict: Readings in Rule Structures and Conflict Relationships. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.

Brown, David. 1994. The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge.

Brown, David. 2001. Why Might Constructed Nationalist and Ethnic Ideologies Come Into Confrontation With Each Other? Working Papers Series 17. Hong Kong: Southeast Asia Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong.

Bruinessen, Martin van. 2002. Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in post-Suharto Indonesia. Revised version of paper written for the international colloquium “L’islam politique à l’aube du XXIème siècle” organized in Tehran on October 28-29, 2001 by the Institute of Political and International Studies and the French Institute of Iranian Studies in Tehran.

Buckles, Daniel. 1999. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Budiman, Arif, ed. 1990. State and Civil Society in Indonesia. Clayton: Monash University.

Budiman, Arif, Barbara Hatley & Damien Kingsbury, eds. 1999. Reformasi: Crisis and Change in Indonesia. Clayton: Monash Asia Institute.

Burhan Magenda. 1991. East Kalimantan: The Decline of a Commercial Aristocracy. Ithaca: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project.

Cahyono, Heru. 1994. Hubungan Antaretnis dan Ras: Kasus Pontianak. Masyarakat Indonesia21(2):179-91.  

Canetti, Elias. 1966. Crowds and Power. New York: Viking.

Carr, John E. and Eng Kok Tan. 1976. In Search of the True Amok as Viewed Within the Malay Culture. American Journal of Psychiatry 133: 1295-9.

Casper , Gretchen & Michelle M. Taylor. 1996. Negotiating Democracy: Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press.

Casson, Anne. 2001. Ethnic Violence in an Era of Regional Autonomy: A Background to the Bloodshed in Kotawaringin Timur. RMAP Occasional Paper. Canberra: Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Project, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Chaeder Bamualim & Noorhaidi Hasan. 2000. Laporan Penelitian Radikalisme Agama dan Perubahan Sosial di DKI Jakarta. Jakarta: IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah & Pemda DKI. 

C harras, Muriel & Marc Pain, eds. 1993. Spontaneous Settlements in Indonesia: Agricultural Pioneers in Southern Sumatra. Paris: ORSTOM-CNRS.

Christie, Kenneth & Robert Cribb, eds. 2002. Historical Injustice and Democratic Transition in Eastern Asia and Northern Europe: Ghosts at the Table of Democracy. Richmond: Curzon Press. ISBN 0700715991

Clastres, Pierre. 1997. Archéologie de la violence. La Tour d'Aigues: Editions de l'Aube.

Cohn, Ilene & Guy S. Goodwin-Gill. 1997. Child Soldiers: The Role of Children in Armed Conflict. A Study on Behalf of the Henry Dunant Institute, Geneva.  Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Colombijn, Freek & J. Thomas Lindblad, eds. 2002. Roots of Violence in Indonesia: Contemporary Violence in Historical Perspective. Verhandelingen van het KITLV 194. Leiden: KITLV Press. 

Conklin, John E. 1981. Criminology. New York: Macmillan.

Constant, Benjamin. 1986. De l'esprit de conquête et de l'usurpation dans leurs rapports avec la civilisation européenne. Texte intégral de la première édition de janvier 1814. Paris: Flammarion.

Coppel, Charles, ed. Forthcoming. Violent Conflicts in Indonesia: Analysis, Representation and Resolution. Richmond: Curzon.

Coser, Lewis A. 1954. Toward a Sociology of Social Conflict. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI.

Coser, Lewis. 1956. The Functions of Social Conflict. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

Cribb, Robert, ed. 1990. The Indonesian Killings 1965-1966: Studies from Java and Bali. Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 21. Clayton: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University.

Cribb, Robert. 1991. Gangsters and Revolutionaries: The Jakarta People's Militia and the Indonesian Revolution, 1945-1949. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Cribb, Robert. 1995. The Indonesian Massacres. Pp. 299-333 in Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, & Israel W. Charny, eds, Genocide in the Twentieth Century: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. New York: Garland Press. ISBN 0-8153-0309-2.

Cribb, Robert. 2000. From Petrus to Ninja: Death Squads in Indonesia. Pp. 181-202 in B.B. Campbell & A.D. Brenner, eds, Death Squads in Global Perspective. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Cribb, Robert. 2001. How Many Deaths? Problems in the Statistics of Massacre in Indonesia (1965-1966) and East Timor (1975-1980). Pp. 82-98 in Ingrid Wessel & Georgia Wimhöfer, eds, Violence in Indonesia. Hamburg: Abera.

Cribb, Robert. 2001. Genocide in Indonesia, 1965-1966. Journal of Genocide Research 3 (2, June): 219-239.

Cribb, Robert. 2002. From Total People's Defence to Massacre: Explaining Indonesian Military Violence in East Timor. Pp 227-241 in Freek Colombijn & Thomas Lindblad, eds, Roots of Violence in Indonesia: Contemporary Violence in Historical Perspective. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Cribb, Robert. 2002. Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965-1966. Asian Survey 42 (4): 550-563.

C rouch, Harold. 1978. The Army and Politics in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Daly, Martin & Margo Wilson. 1988. Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.  

Daniel, E. Valentine. 1996. Charred Lullabies: Chapters in an Anthropology of Violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Das, Veena. 1990. Mirrors of Violence: Communities, Riots and Survivors in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Das, Veena. 1998. Specificities: Official Narratives, Rumour, and the Social Production of Hate. Social Identities 4(1):109-31.

Das, Veena. 2000. "The Act of Witnessing: Violence, Poisonous Knowledge, and Subjectivity," in Violence and Subjectivity. Edited by Veena Das, Arthur Kleinman, Mamphela Ramphele, and Pamela Reynold, pp. 205-25. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Davidson, Jamie S. 2003. "Primitive" Politics: The Rise and Fall of the Dayak Unity Party in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. ARI Working Paper No. 9.

Davidson, Jamie S. 2003. The Politics of Violence on an Indonesian Periphery. South East Asia Research 11 (1, March): 59-90.

Davis, Michael. 2002. Laskar Jihad and the Political Position of Conservative Islam in Indonesia. Contemporary Southeast Asia 24(1, April):12-32.

Dentan, Robert K. 1968. The Semai: A Nonviolent People of Malaysia. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Diamond, Larry, et al., eds. 1997. Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Diamond, Larry, and Marc F. Plattner, eds. 1996. The Global Resurgence of Democracy. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dijk, Cees van. 2001. A Country in Despair: Indonesia Between 1997 and 2000. Jakarta: KITLV Press.

Dinnen, Sinclair & Allison Ley, eds. 2000. Reflections on Violence in Melanesia. Annandale: Hawkins Press, Canberra: Asia Pacific Press.

Edmonds, Martin. 1997. Armed Services and Society: Towards a Theory of Civil-Military Relations. Lancaster: Lancaster University.

Ellen, Roy. 2002. Nuaulu Head-Taking: Negotiating the Twin Dangers of Presentist and Essentialist Reconstructions. Social Anthropology 10(3):281-301.

Eklöf, S. 1999. Indonesian Politics in Crisis: The Long Fall of Suharto 1996-98. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Eldridge, Philip J. 1995. Non-Government Organizations and Democratic Participation in Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur & New York: Oxford University Press.

Eller, Jack David. 1999. From Culture to Ethnicity to Conflict: An Anthropological Perspective on International Ethnic Conflict. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.  

Ember, Carol R. & Melvin Ember. 1992. Resource Unpredictability, Mistrust, and War: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Conflict Resolution 36: 242-262.

Emmerson, Donald K., ed. 1999. Indonesia Beyond Suharto: Polity, Economy, Society, Transition. N.p.: M.E. Sharpe.

European Commission for Democracy through Law. 2000. Societies in Conflict: The Contribution of Law and Democracy to Conflict Resolution. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Fakhri, Andi Mulya. 2001. Di Balik Tragedi Sampit: Data, Fakta dan Prospek Penyelesaian. Jakarta: Sarana Media Investama.

Fein, Helen. 1990. Genocide: A Sociological Perspective. Current Sociology 38(1):1-126.

Fein, Helen. 1993. Revolutionary and Antirevolutionary Genocides: A Comparison of State Murders in Democratic Kampuchea, 1975 to 1979, and in Indonesia, 1965 to 1966. Comparative Studies in Society and History 35:796-823.

Feldman, Allen. 1991. Formations of Violence: The Narrative of the Body and Political Terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ferguson , R. Brian, ed. 1984. Warfare, Culture and Environment. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.  

Ferguson , R. Brian. 2001. Materialist, Cultural and Biological Theories On Why Yanomami Make War. Anthropological Theory 1(1):99-116.

Ferguson, R. Brian & Leslie E. Frarragher. 1988. The Anthropology of War: A Bibliography. New York: Occasional Papers of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation.

Ferguson , R. Brian & Neil L. Whitehead, eds. 1992. War in the Tribal Zone: Expanding States and Indigenous Warfare. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.

Ferret, Stéphane. 1998.  L'identité. Paris: Flammarion.

Fisher, Simon, et al. 2000. Mengelola Konflik: Ketrampilan dan Strategi untuk Bertindak. Jakarta : The British Council, London: Zed Books & Birmingham: Responding to Conflict.

Foucault, Michel. 1975. Surveiller et punir: Naissance de la prison. Paris : Gallimard.

Fox, Jonathan. 1999. Do Religious Instutions Support Violence or the Status Quo? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 22:119-139.

Francart, Loup. 1999. Maîtriser la violence: une option stratégique. Avec la collaboration de Jean-Jacques Patry. Paris: Economica.

Frappat, Hélène, ed. 2000. La violence. Paris: Flammarion.

Freitag, Sandra B. 1989. Collective Action and Community: Public Arenas and the Emergence of Communalism in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fry, Douglas P. 1996. Conflict and Aggression. Pp. 237-241 in David Levinson & Melvin Ember, eds., Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 1. New York: Henry Holt & Company.

Fried, Morton H., Marvin Harris & Robert Murphy, eds. 1967. War: The Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression. New York: Natural History Press.

George, Kenneth M. 1996. Showing Signs of Violence: The Cultural Politics of a Twentieth-Century Headhunting Ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Giddens, Anthony. 1973. The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies. New York: Barnes & Noble.

Gilligan, James. 1997. Violence: Reflections on a National Epidemic. New York: Vintage Books.

Gluckman, Max. 1956. Custom and Conflict in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Goldstein, Arnold P. & Marshall H. Segall, eds. 1983. Aggression in Global Perspective. New York: Pergamon.

Good, Byron J. & Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good. 2001. Why Do the Masses So Easily Run Amok? Latitudes 5(June):10-19.

Gordillo, Gaston. The Breath of the Devils: Memories and Places of an Experience of Terror. American Ethnologist 29(1):33-57.

Green, Linda. 1994. Fear As a Way of Life. Current Anthropology 9(2):227-256.

Gulliver, P.H. 1979. Disputes and Negotiations: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Academic Press.

Gunawan, F.X. Rudy & Nezar Patria. 2000. Premanisme Politik. Jakarta: Institut Studi Arus Informasi.

Gunawan, Rimbo, Juni Thamrin & Endang Suhendar. 1999. After the Rain Falls...: The Impact of the East Kalimantan Forestry Industry on Tribal Society. Bandung: Akatiga.

Gurr, Ted Robert. 1993. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington, DC: The United States Institute of Peace Press.

Guur, Ted Robert & Mark Irving Lichbach. 1996. Early Warning of Communal Conflicts and Genocide: Linking Empirical Research to International Responses. Tokyo: The United Nations University Press.

Haas, Jonathan. 1990. The Anthropology of War. School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  

Haas, Jonathan. 1996. War. Pp. 1357-61 in David Levinson & Melvin Ember, eds., Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 1. New York: Henry Holt & Company.

Harris, Syamsuddin, Dhuroruddin Mashad, Erni Budiwanti, Ikrar Nusa Bhakti, M. Riefki Muna, R. Siti Zuhro, & Syamsumar Dam. 1999. Indonesia di Ambang Perpecahan? Kasus Aceh, Riau, Irian Jaya, dan Timor Timor. Jakarta : Penerbit Erlangga.

Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2001. Between Faith and Politics: Militant Islamic Groups in the Era of Transition in Indonesia. Manuscript.

Hefner, Robert W. 2000. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hendro Suroyo Sudagung. 2001. Mengurai Pertikaian Etnis: Migrasi Swakarsa Etnis Madura ke Kalimantan Barat. Jakarta: ISAI.

Hinton, Alexander Laban. 1997. Why Did You Kill? The Cambodian Genocide and the Dark Side of Face and Honor. Journal of Asian Studies 57:91-122.

Hinton, Alexander Laban. 1998. A Head for an Eye: Revenge in the Cambodian Genocide. American Ethnologist 25:352-77.

Homer-Dixon, Thomas F. 1999. Environment, Scarcity, and Violence. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Horowitz, Donald L. 2000. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Updated edition with a new Preface. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

Horowitz, Donald L. 2000. The Deadly Ethnic Riot. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hoskins, Janet, ed. 1996. Headhunting and the Social Imagination in Southeast Asia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Hoskins, Janet. 2002. Predatory Voyeurs: Tourists and "Tribal Violence" in Remote Indonesia. American Ethnologist 29(4):797-828.

Houben, Jan E.M. & Karel R. van Kooij, eds. 1999. Violence Denied: Violence, Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History. Leiden, Boston & Köln: Brill.

Howell, Nancy. 1990. Surviving Fieldwork. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.

Howell, Singe & Roy Willis, eds. 1989. Societies at Peace: Anthropological Perspectives. New York: Routledge.

Human Rights Watch. 1998. Communal Violence in West Kalimantan. Vol. 9, No. 10 (C). New York: Human Rights Watch.

Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Hüsken, Frans & Huub de Jonge, eds. 2002. Violence and Vengeance: Discontent and Conflict in New Order Indonesia. Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change 37. Saarbrüken: Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik.  

Ichsan Malik. 2002. Baku Bae: Gerakan Komunitas Korban Untuk Penyelesaian Konflik di Maluku. Pengantar: Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X. In press.

International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. 1976. Migration and Development: Implications for Ethnic Identity and Political Conflict. Walter De Gruyter.  

Jackson, Karl D. & Lucian W. Pye, ed. 1978. Political Power and Communication in Indonesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jacobsen, Timo Kivimäki & Suratman Kartasasmita, eds. 2002. Democracy, Decentralization, Identity and Conflict. Proceedings of NIAS-ICSN Conference, Copenhagen 31 August - 1 September 2001. Studies in a Nutshell 8. Helsinki: Conflict Transformation Service.

Jakobsen, Michael. 2002. Nation-making and the Politicisation of Ethnicity in Post-Suharto Indonesia. Working Papers Series 26. Hong Kong: Southeast Asia Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong.

Johnson, Eric A. & Eric H. Monkkonen, eds. 1996. The Civilization of Crime: Violence in Town & Country since the Middle Ages. Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Just, Peter. 2001. Dou Donggo Justice: Conflict and Morality in an Indonesian Society. Lanham:  Rowman & Littlefield.  

Kapferer, Bruce. 1988. Legends of People, Myths of State: Violence, Intolerance, and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

King, Victor T. 1993. The Peoples of Borneo. Cambridge, MA & Oxford: Blackwell.

Klinken, Gerry van. 1999. What Caused the Ambon Violence? Perhaps Not Religious Hatred but a Corrupt Civil Service Sparked the Bloodletting. Inside Indonesia 60 (Oct.-Dec.).

Klinken, Gerry van. 2000. Ethnic Fascism in Borneo. Inside Indonesia 68 (June-July).

Klinken, Gerry van. 2001. The Maluku Wars of 1999. Bringing Society Back In. Indonesia 71:1-26.

Klinken, Gerry van. 2001. Indonesia's New Ethnic Elites. Paper prepared for ' Indonesia in Transition' Workshop held in Yogyakarta, 22 August. Manuscript.

Klinken, Gerry van. 2002. Indonesia's New Ethnic Elites' (Central and East Kalimantan), p.67-105 in Indonesia: In Search of Transition, edited by Henk Schulte Nordholt and Irwan Abdullah. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Kloos, Peter. 1999. Violent Youth Movements in Sri Lanka: The JVP and the LTTE Compared. Antropologische Bijdragen VU Amsterdam 3. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit.

Knauft, Bruce M. 1987. Reconsidering Violence in Simple Human Societies. Current Anthropology 32:457-500.

Koch, Klaus-Friedrich. 1974. War and Peace in Jalemo: The Management of Conflict in Highland New Guinea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

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Kriesberg, Louis. 1998. Constructive Conflicts: From Escalation to Resolution. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

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Laksono, PM, Theo van den Broek, Budi Susanto, & A. Made Tony Supriatna. 1998. Kekayaan, Agama, dan Kekuasaan: Identitas dan Konflik di Indonesia (Timur) Modern . Yogyakarta: Kanisius.  

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Lischer, Rarah Kenyon. 1999. Causes of Communal War: Fear and Feasibility. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 22:331-355.

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MacFarling, Ian. 1996. The Dual Function of the Indonesian Armed Forces. Canberra: Australia Defence Studies Centre.

Madden, David & Paddy Baron. 2002. Violence and Conflict Resolution in "Non Conflict" Regions: The Case of Lampung, Indonesia. Jakarta: The World Bank. Manuscript.

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Malley, Michael. 2001. Indonesia: Violence and Reform Beyond Jakarta. Southeast Asian Affairs 2001: 159-174.

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