Declaration on a Code of Conduct for Inter-African Relations, Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Thirtieth Ordinary Session, Tunis, Tunisia, 13-15 June 1994.

We, African Heads of State and Government meeting in Tunis, Tunisia, from 13 to 15 June, 1994, on the occasion of the 30th Ordinary Session of our Summit,


Considering the Charter of the United Nations Organization, particularly its provisions on security, stability, economic development and co-operation,

Considering the Charter of the Organization of African Unity,particularly its principles and objectives (Articles II and III)

Considering the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community,

Bearing in mind the resolution adopted by the Dakar Summit (29 June - 1 July 1992) on the strengthening of co-operation and co-ordination among African States,

Bearing in mind also resolution CM/Res.1389 on the right of States to decide on their political options without foreign interference,

Conscious of the magnitude of the challenges facing our continent and firmly resolved to face up to these challenges,

Conscious of the fact that it behooves us, more than ever before, to close our ranks in order to better meet the hopes and expectations our peoples have nurtured for decades,

Considering the proliferation of hot beds of tension in Africa and the serious threat they pose to the stability, independence and credibility as well as to the development of our States,

Determined to pursue the realization of the objectives set down in the resolution adopted by the Cairo Summit (June 1993) establishing the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution,

Convinced of our duty to strengthen solidarity, consultation and co-operation among Member States, based on mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs,

Aware of the need to assert human and moral values based on tolerance and the rejection of all forms of discrimination, injustice, extremism and terrorism,

Considering that fanaticism and extremism, whatever their nature, origin and form, especially fanaticism and extremism based on religion, politics and tribalism which are detrimental to the peace and security of the continent, are unacceptable,

Aware that every co-operation effort is doomed to failure in an environment devoid of stability, trust and security,

Aware also that the time has come to take our destiny into our own hands and to seek African solutions to the problems besetting our continent,

Recalling that the Charter of the United Nations Organization reaffirms the faith of the International Community in fundamental human Rights, the dignity and sanctity of the human person, and in the equality of the rights of men and women, as well as of nations, big and small,

Recalling also that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in its Article 29 stipulates that in the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society,

Recognizing that the freedom of religious belief and its peaceful expression are a fundamental right of all human beings as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the Declaration on the Elimination of all Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination Based on Religion or Conviction, as well as in other instruments relating to human rights,

Recognizing further the threat posed by movements based on religious, political and tribal extremism,

Considering that extremism and terrorism under the pretext of sectarianism, tribalism, ethnicity or religion undermine the moral and human values of peoples, particularly fundamental freedoms and tolerance,

In view of the aforementioned:

1. We are determined to intensify political consultations and expand co-operation in order to resolve economic, social, environmental, cultural and humanitarian problems. This common resolve and our growing independence will help overcome all kinds of mistrust, increase stability and build a united Africa;

2. We want Africa to be a source of peace, open to dialogue, co-operation and exchange with the rest of the world, and committed to the search for common responses to future challenges;

3. We fully support the United Nations Organization and the strengthening of its role in the promotion of peace, security and international justice. We reaffirm our commitment to the United Nations principles and objectives as set forth in the Charter and condemn any violation of these principles;

4. We reaffirm our deep conviction that friendly relations among our peoples as well as peace, justice, stability and democracy, call for the protection of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity of all our people including national minorities and the creation of conditions conducive to the promotion of this identity;

5. We are determined to combat racial or ethnic hatred in all its ramifications as well as any form of discrimination and persecution against any individual on religious or ideological grounds;

6. We are resolved to develop and strengthen the amicable relations and cooperation existing among our States and to promote friendship among our peoples. The challenges facing us can be met only through concerted action, cooperation and solidarity;

7. Mindful of our obligations under the United Nations Charter and our commitments vis-a-vis the OAU Charter, we reiterate our determination to refrain from the use of force or the threat thereof, against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, and from any other action inconsistent with the principles and objectives of these Charters. We reaffirm that the non-respect of the said obligations constitutes a violation of international law;

8. We believe that our relations, both at the bilateral and continent-wide levels should be backed by a new package of concrete security measures paving the way for enhanced transparency among all States. These measures would constitute a significant step towards increased stability and security in Africa;

9. We are determined to cooperate in the defence of the institution of our respective States against hegemony and all other activities carried out in violation of the independence, unity, sovereign equality or territorial integrity of Member States;

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